Version-1 (Nov–Dec 2013)
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Abstract: This study aimed to analyze correlation of varies decision on household economy of catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmer, and formulate alternatives policies to increase production and improved household welfare of farmers. Total of 83 household sample of catfish farmer in 6 villages of 2 sub-districts in Minapolitan Area, Banjar Regency was simple randomly selected. The household's economic model of catfish farmer is built of 22 simultaneous equations by develop theory of Agricultural Household Models. We used regression analysis of two stage least square (2SLS) and simulation models. The results show that linkage of varies decisions impact on household economic improvement of catfish farmers, except for an increase in stocking density that will be followed by the increase in the number and cost of feed. Consequently, household income is becoming lower. Selected alternative policies for increasing production and improved farmer's welfare is a combination of pond extension, application of improved farming technologies, subsidizing the price of pellet feed, and education subsidies.Keywords: catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), economy model, farmer, household
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Global Warming Versus Global Cooling and Their Impacts on Plants and Animals|
Abstract: At global level the disturbance in climate is continued and as an additional effect of global warming, the surprising truth of global cooling is haunting. Since the last decade there is a decreasing trend in global temperature. The year 2011 was recorded as the coolest year globally since 2000. The winter period is being longer both in intensity and duration. The decline in global temperature is creating abnormal climatic change. The incidence of abnormal heavy snow fall, stormy rains with hails in different parts of the world is depicting an upward trend every year. Recently on 16th February 2011, the north- eastern Koshi region of Bihar was badly affected by the erratic climatic change. Supaul district was the worst affected. At about 6 P.M., a sharp short-lived storm with rains and large-sized stony hails came and heavily damaged the standing crops and other plants.Keywords: Animals, Buildings, Crops, Damage, Global cooling, Snowfall, Damage.
 Sharma, J. P., P. K. Garg and H. K. Bhatia (2004). Pollution and global environmental changes. Coprehensive Biology, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 824-866.
 Sharma, Kuldeep (2010). And now Global Cooling. Vigyan Pragati, Hindi Monthaly, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, Year 59, February : 2010, No. 2, Purnank 669, pp. 34-37.
 Tornqviist, T. E., S. J. Bick, J. L. Gonzalez K. van der Borg, K. and A. F. M. de Jong (2004)Tracking the sea level signature of the 8.2 ka cooling event: New constraints from the Mississippi Delta, Geophysical Research Letter, 31, L23309, doi : 1029/2004GLO21429.
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 Dainik Jagran (2012). On monday Srinagar became completely covered with snow . Dainik Jagran, Hindi daily newspaper, Tuesday, 14th February Bhagalpur, India.
 Hindustan (2011). Intense stormy rains damaged the crops of thousands of acres. Hindustan, Hindi Daily Newspaper, Tuesday, April 5, Bhagalpur, India.
 Kumar, Subhash (2011). Disaster management and Supaul. Souvenir, District Foundation Day, Supaul, pp. 19-21.
 DDMA (2011). Damage of crops and buildings due to stormy rains and hails on16th February 2011. Report submitted to Secretary, Agricultuse Department, Bihar Patna on 23 Feb 2011, District Disaster Managament Authority, Collectariate, Supaul, Bihar, India.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Acute Toxicity of Paraquat Dichloride on Blood Plasma Indices of Clarias gariepinus|
|Authors||:||E. I. Seiyaboh, I. R. Inyang A. H. Gijo, G. D. Adobeni|
Abstract: A comparative study of the acute toxicity of paraquat dichloride on blood plasma indices of Clarias gariepinus was carried out using thirty eight (38) adult fishes of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 166±54.13g; length 36.25±2.90cm) which were exposed to acute levels of paraquat dichloride (an organophosphate pesticide). The fishes were carefully netted to minimize stress and the area was wiped dry to avoid contamination. Blood was drawn from the heart with a 2cm3 heparnized plastic syringed fitted with 23G needle. The blood thus collected was preserved in EDTA bottles. The changes observed in haemoglobin. PCV, WBC and platelets showed a direct relationship with the exposed concentrations. Values increased with increasing concentration of the toxicant. The results clearly show profound effect of paraquat dichloride on energy metabolism, hence negative effect on blood plasma activities of Clarias gariepinus.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study on the Effect of Detergent Suryagold on the Chronic Toxicity of the Fresh Water Fish Cirrhinus Mrigala|
|Authors||:||J. Vasanthi, S. Binukumari, N. Saradhamani|
Abstract: To get an idea about the nature of effect of detergent Surya gold on the biochemical aspects of aquatic organisms,fishes belonging to the species Cirrhinus mrigala were exposed to sublethal concentration of 3.5 mg/L for long term duration.Biochemical characteristics like glycogen,protein and cholesterol were estimated in Liver,Kidney,gills and muscles.The decrease of biochemical constituents from the control were noted.The results are statistically analysed and most values were found to be significant.Keywords: Biochemical analysis, Cirrhinus mrigla, Detergent, Tissues, Surya gold.
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 K.Shanthi, Kiran Joseph and M.Manimegalai, Studies on biochemical changes in the liver and kidney due to sterling biotech limited industry effluent in freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).Indian J.Environ &Ecoplan 16(1),2009, 145-150.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Acute Toxicity Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil on Sarotherodon melanotheron (Black Chin Tilapia)|
|Authors||:||Seiyaboh, E. I., Ogamba, E. N., Utibe, D. I., Dike, M.|
Abstract: The effect of the toxicity of crude oil were investigated in the laboratory using Bonny light crude oil and Sarotherodon melanotheron species from brackish water collected at Eagles Island, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. Triplicates of 0.01(ppm), 0.005(ppm), 0.01(ppm) and 0.02(ppm) concentration of crude oil in brackish water were made in aquaria where Sarotherodon melanotheron species were kept. Soluble water fraction (SWF) of Bonny light crude oil were total hydrocarbon 0.30±0.02, dissolved oxygen (DO) 9.50±0.01, biological oxygen demand (BOD) 8.40±0.05, chemical oxygen demand(COD) 1.19±0.02, pH 6.60±0.01, and that of brackish water were dissolved oxygen (DO) 2.03±2.43. biological oxygen demand (BOD) 1.09±1.69, Lethal concentration of crude oil on the fish samples (LC50) was 0.01(ppm). Bonny light crude oil is toxic to Sarotherodon melanotheron and consequently to the environment.
. Ayoola, S.O. and Alajabo, O.T. (2012) Acute Toxicity and Histopathological Effect of Engine Oil on Sarotherodon melanotheron (Black Jaw Tilapia). American-Eurasian Journal of Toxicoloogical Sciences 4 (10 48-55, 2012.
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Abstract: This work aims to study the impact of total available soil water in the root zone (TAW) on the relation between irrigation regime and water use efficiency of a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. Var. Karim.) cultivar in the pedoclimatic conditions of the irrigated area of Oued Rmel in Tunisia. After calibration, STICS model was used to simulate effects of two irrigation scenarios on water use efficiency of durum wheat over a 20-year period with regard to farmers irrigation practices in the study area. To carry out the study, three types of soil in the Oued rmel irrigation scheme were chosen on the basis of their TAW. Two scenarios of irrigation scheduling were designed through the STICS model: (i) irrigation was scheduled when 50% of the TAW was depleted (I50); (ii) irrigation was scheduled when 25% of the TAW was depleted (I25). Results showed that lowest values of grain yield were obtained in soil having low TAW as a consequence of a frequent water stress occurring during the reproductive stage of wheat. The highest values of WUE, as determined at grain and biomass basis (WUEg and WUEbio indexes), were obtained when irrigation was scheduled at 25% of the TAW depletion. In I50 and I25 scenarios, highest WUEg, averaging respectively 2.25 and 2.23 kg m-3 was obtained in soil having high TAW. As noticed for WUEg, highest values of WUEbio were registred in soil having high TAW.Keywords: crop model, durum wheat, irrigation, water use efficiency.
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. N. Ben Mechlia. Perspectives de Valorisation de l'Eau d'Irrigation dans les Pays du Maghreb (Cahier Options méditerranéennes, Series B, n°47. Water Management for Drought Mitigation in the Mediterranean (MAIB, Bari, Italy, 2004) 169 – 185.
. B. Ben Nouna, , N.Katerji and M.Mastrorilli, Using the CERES-Maize model in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Evaluation of model performance. Eur. J. Agron., 13, 2000, 309–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(00)00063-0
. Y. Bozkurt , A. Yazar , B. Gencel and M.S. Sezen, Optimum lateral spacing for drip-irrigated corn in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Agr. Water Manage., 85, 2006, 113-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.03.019
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Role of Phytosterols Enriched Foods-A Review|
|Authors||:||M. Penchala Raju, D. G. Aravind Babu, B. Rakesh kumar, C. H. Rajashekar|
Abstract: Phytosterols exist as naturally occurring plant sterols that are present in the nonsaponifiable fraction of plant oils. Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)–lowering effect. Although many studies have been conducted to resolve the mechanisms of action by which phytosterols lower serum cholesterol. Dietary Phytosterols appear to play an important role in the regulation of oxidation and serum lipids and exhibit anticancer properties. However, as the study confines to the effect of phytosterol on lipid regulation, the review is confined to phytosterol and their role in control of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The information reviewed is presented under the following sections as types of Phytosterols and their structures, mechanism of action, phytosterols in foods for cvd risk reduction, phytosterols as ingredient in functional foods, stability of phytosterols in foods, safety aspects and regulatory status of phytosterols, phytosterols content in foods and phytosterol enriched products are reviewed.Key words: Phytosterols, LDL-Cholesterol.
. AbuMweis, S.S., Barake, R and Jones, P. 2008. Plant sterols/stanols as cholesterol lowering agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food and Nutrition Research. 52-56.
. Aparna Kuna and Poshadri, A. 2012. Phytosterol- A functional ingredient for indian food industry. Indian Food Industry.30(3):21-28.
. Aparna Kuna., Narendar Raju, P and Poshadri, A. 2011. Phytosterols as functional ingredients for dairy foods. Indian journal of dairy sciences. 64 (5): 359-367.
. Berger, A., Jones, P.J.H and Abumweis, S.S. 2004. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients. Lipids in Health and Disease 3:5.http://www.lipidworld.com/content/3/1/5.
. Cantrill, R and Kawamura, Y. 2008. Phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, chemical and technical assessments. Proceedings of 69th JEFCA, 1- 13.
. Christiansen, L.I., Lahteenmaki, P.L.A., Mannelin, M.R., Seppanen-Laakso, T.E., Hiltunen, R.V.K and Yliruusi, J.K. 2001. Cholesterol-lowering effect of spreads enriched with microcrystalline plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects. European Journal of Nutrition. 40: 66-73.
. Clifton, P.M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D., Annison, G., Fassoulakis, A and Cehun, M. 2004. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 58: 503 –509.
. Demonty, I., Ras, T.R., Henk, C.M., knaap, V.D., Duchateau, S.M.J.E., Meijer, L., Zock, P.L., Geleijnse, J.M and Trautwen, A.E. 2010. Continuous dose-response relationship of the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of phtosterol intake. Journal of nutrition. 271-284.
. Devaraj, S., Jialal, I and Vega-Lopez, S. 2006. Plant Sterol-Fortified Orange Juice Effectively Lowers Cholesterol Levels in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Healthy Individuals. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 24: 25-28.
. Doornbos, A.M., Meynen, E.M., Duchateau, G.S., van der Knaap, H.C., and Trautwein, E.A. 2006. Intake occasion affects the serum cholesterol lowering of a plant sterol-enriched single-dose yoghurt drink in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60:325–333.
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Abstract: Lead (Pb) concentration was determined in 150 samples (50 livers, 50 kidneys, and 50 muscles) of slaughtered cattle at Jos Central Abattoir. The samples were analyzed for lead using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of lead in liver, kidney, and muscle samples were 1.887 mg/kg, 1.2790 mg/kg, and 0.6680 mg/kg respectively. Out of the samples analyzed, only 21 samples (5 samples of liver, 6 samples of kidney and 10 samples of muscles) were within the recommended Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO, 2002) permissible limits of lead concentration in liver, kidney and muscle of bovine. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the concentration of lead in the liver, kidney and muscle samples tested.Keywords: Abattoir, Kidney, Lead (Pb), Liver, Muscle, Slaughtered Cattle, Plateau State, Nigeria.
. Bala A., Junaidu A.U., Salihu M.D., Onifade K.I., Magaji A. A., Faleke O.O., Saulawa M.A., Musawa A.I., Mohammed M, Muhammad L.U., Pewan S.B., Anzaku S.A. and Emenna P.(2012). Survey of Lead (Pb) Residue in Kidney and Liver of Slaughtered Cattle in Sokoto Central Abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Advances, 2(3): 132- 138.
. Blakley B. R (1984). A retrospective study of lead poisoning in cattle. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 26:505-507.
. Blakley B. R, and Brockman R. P (1976). Lead poisoning in ruminant. Canadian Veterinary. Journal., 17: 16-18
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. Casas J. S, and Sordo J (2006). Lead: Chemistry, Analytical aspects, Environmental impact and Health effects. 1st Edition., Amsterdam, ElsevierScience, Pp. 19.
. Debackere M (1983). Environmental Pollution: The animal as a Source, Indicator and Transmitter.In:Veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. 2nd Edition., Westport, CT, AVI Publishing Co., Pp: 595-608.
. Dioka C. E, Orisakwe I. E, Adeniyi F. A. A, Meludu S. C (2004). Liver and Renal function tests in Artisans occupationally exposed to Lead in Mechanic village in Nnewi, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health, 1: 21-25.
. Doyle, J. J. and J. E. Spaulding (1978). Toxic and essential trace elements in meat: a review. Journal of Animal Science. 47: 398-419.
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Abstract: The green leafy vegetables such as Spinach, Fenugreek, Amaranthus randomly collected from agricultural fields across Vrishabhavathi river at five different stations were analysed for heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu,Mn, and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The wastewater sample analyzed at these stations shows higher Electrical Conductivity, BOD, COD and low dissolved oxygen. The heavy metal concentration was higher over year by year in urban sewage water used for irrigation. The results shows higher concentration of iron content in plants followed by manganese. Chromium content is lower in leafy vegetable species. Spinach has higher transfer factor for the heavy metals among the three leafy vegetables followed by Fenugreek and Amaranthus. Highest transfer factor is recorded for zinc metal followed by manganese. Lowest transfer factor is recorded for chromium and lead. The average transfer factor observed in the selected green leafy vegetables is in the order of Zn>Mn>Fe>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cr.Key words: Heavy metals, Transfer factor, Urban waste water, leafy vegetables.
. MitraA and Gupta L.K , Effect of sewage water irrigation on essential plant nutrient and pollutant element status in a vegetable growing area around Calcutta, Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 47,1999, 99-105.
. Singh K.P., Mohan D., Sinha S., &Dalwani R., Impact assessment of treated / untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere, 55,2004, 227-255.
. Tiwari R.C., Saraswat P.K. andAgarwal H.P. , Changes in micronutrients status of soils irrigated with treated sewage water and tube well water, Journal of Indian society of soil science 51, 2003,150-155.
. Jayadev and Puttaiah E.T., Studies onheavy metals contamination in Vrishabhavathiriver water and ground water of the surrounding river, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, Issue 1,2013,p1-9.
. Kaushal F.L., Parwana H.K. and Varma S.P., Effect of waste water irrigation on soil properties, Indian journal of Environmental protection 13, 1993, 374-378.
. Arai S, Global view on functional foods: Asian perspectives. Br J Nutur 88: (2002). 139-143. . Wang X.L., Sato T, Xing BS, Tao S, Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment 350: 2005,28-37.
. Amlan Kr. Ghosh , Bhatt M.A, Agrawal H.P , Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetable grown in northern India, Environ Monit Assess ,184: 2012, 1025-1036.
. Gupta N., Khan D.K., Santra S.C, Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in a long-term wastewater irrigated agricultural land oftropical India Environ Monit Assess , 184: 2012, 6673-6682.
. Sharma R.K.,Agarwal M., Marshal F, Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated areas of Varanasi,India. Bull Environ Contam. Toxicol 77: (2006), 312-318.