Version-1 (Nov–Dec 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||An Assessment of the Development Potentials of Nasarawa State in Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Yaro, Obadiah Otso; Ebuga, Emmanuel Attah|
Abstract: The paper examines the development potentials of Nasarawa state in Nigeria as they relate to the growth and development. Information were generated through field survey, focused group discussion (FGD) and secondary sources. The development potentials are numerous. These include solid minerals, agriculture, human resources, tropical climate, tourism potentials, education, livestock, water resources, forest resources and land resource considering its proximity to Abuja, the Federal Capital City of Nigeria. Proper harnessing of these resources will no doubt place Nasarawa State Government in a better position to create a vibrant economy that would have a lot to offer in terms of wealth and income generation, employment creation and infrastructural development with poverty alleviation as a consequence. This paper concludes by suggesting partnership approach in harnessing these untapped resources where other alternatives fail.
Keywords: Development potentials, growth, development, synergy.
. Abimiku, E. (2009): Investment Opportunities for Civil Servants in Nasarawa State. A paper presented at workshop organised by the Academic Staff Union of Polytechnic (ASUP), Nasarawa State Polytechnic Chapter at the Multipurpose Hall I, lafia.
. Akwa, V.L, Binbol, N. L, Samaila, K. I. And Marcus, N. D. (2007): Geographical Perspective on Nasarawa State. Onaivi Printing and Publishing Company Ltd. Keffi, Nasarawa State.
. Ayi, S. O. (2003): Nasarawa State: Past and Present. Abuja, Nigeria. Umbrella Books.
. Barau, D. (2005): Utilizing Environmental Resources (Minerals) for Regional Economic Rehabilitation and Reliance. A paper presented at the Federal College of Education Okene Conference of 13th – 17th September.
. Dwivedi, D. N. (2002): Managerial Economics, Sixth Edition. New Delhi, India, Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd.
. Gwamna, J. (2007): Education in Nasarawa State: The Journey so far; Retrieved from www.nbslafia.net.
. Yaro, O.O. (2002): Developing Solid Mineral Deposits for Rural Development in Nigeria. A Case of Nasarawa State. Solid Journal Vol. 1 Lafia, Nasarawa State Polytechnic.
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Abstract: Deforestation, forest fire hazard and exploitation of forest have been warning threats to our environment and ecosystem globally. Uttarakhand is a hilly state of India situated in the lap of Central Himalayas and Chir pine forest is the foremost species of this state. In this state, 65% area is covered mainly by forest and population wise, about 70% of its total population inhibit in its rural areas. Pine forest is found enormously in several districts of the Uttarakhand state. One of the prime means of survival hood of rural there is collection of hay stuff for cattle and growing tendrils for vegetables etc. For this purpose every year, villagers need a number of poles as a support to hay stuff and tendrils. Pine trees, bearing a pole kind of structure, are the most victims for this reason as it is easily available to the villagers. Pine has been a valuable asset internationally for many applications e.g. medicine, drugs, expensive chemicals, etc. It has been a research focus of many scientists and industrialists. It's under usage for hay and tendril purpose is, however, hardly noticed. The present study deals with estimation of poles, required for hay and tendril purpose in various districts of the Uttarakhand. A field survey is conducted to observe and estimate pine deforestation by individual family. The findings of present survey indicate: (i) pine deforestation by villages needs to be noticed and avoided (ii) villages may be provided an alternative solution (iii) instead, pine trees should be preserved and used for enhancing social, environmental and economic measures. The alternate for hay and tendril poles is discussed. The benefits of preserving pine trees and its scope is thoroughly studied. Harmful effects of pine forest degradation are highlighted.
Keywords-Pine forest, Hay, Tendril, Chir pine, Himalay
 C. P. Kala, "Indigenous uses & structure of Chir pine forest in Uttaranchal, Himalaya, India", International journal of sustainable development and world ecology, 2004
 R. Sui 2009, "Separation of Shikimic acid from Pine needles", Chemical engineering and technology, vol. 31, issue 3, pages 469-473, March, 2008
 Kuchimanchi SN, Murthy BGK, SampathkumaranPS.,"Isomerization of Abietic acid to generate medicinally important Diterpene building blocks",American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Conference held at Boston, United States, 2002. p. 18-22.
 Dr. Jean Valnet, "The practice of Aromatherapy", 1964, pp. 41-43
 Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC ,"Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plant", CSIR, New Delhi, 1986  Puri A, Srivastava AK, Singhal B, Mishra SK, Srivastava S, Lakshmi V. "Ant dysentery and antioxidant activity of Pinusroxburghiineedles", Med Chem Res. 2011; 20(9): 1589-93
 Wiyono B, Tachibana S, TinambunanD.,"Chemical Compositions of Pine Resins, Rosin and Turpentine Oil from West Java", J Forest Res. 2006; 3(1): 7-17.
 M. J. Haigh, J.S. Rawat and H.S. Bisht, "Hydrological Impact of Deforestation in the Central Himalayas", Hydrology of Mountainous areas. IAHS Publ. no.190, 1990
 E. Somanathan and R. Prabhakar, "Properties Regimes and Deforestation: A quantitative study of the Central Himalayas" Institute of Rural Management Anand, January 1999
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor – A New Perspective in Wastewater Treatment|
|Authors||:||Borkar R. P., Gulhane M. L., Kotangale A. J.|
Abstract: A new advanced biological reactor for waste water treatment, Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is discussed. General description of expected setup of reactor is given. The proposed results from different applications when used for domestic waste water will be discussed. Moving Bed technology presents several operational advantages, compared to other conventional biological treatments. Different applications of this technology for small plants will be studied, considering main investment and operating costs. Processes will take account of Moving Bed Biological Reactors (MBBR) with some sort of modifications. Conditions which may be studied will include COD removal, or COD and nutrients removal, with different primary treatments. Smaller biological reactor volumes and smaller secondary settling surface are needed. In conclusion, the results can indicate that MBBR with polyethylene media as Biofilm carrier may possess great potential to be used for OMs removal from water and wastewater. This study can be helpful to check possibility that the moving bed Biofilm process may be used as an ideal and efficient option for the total nutrient removal from municipal wastewater.
Index Terms: Waste water, Moving Bed, Biofilm, Bioreactor, Biofilm carriers, Hybrid processes, nutrient removal, sewage, Treatment
. Ahl., R.M., Leiknes., T. & Odegaard., H. (2006), " Tracking particle size distributions in a moving bed biofilm membrane reactor for
treatment of municipal wastewater.", Water Sci. Technol., 53: 33-42.
. Andreottola., G., Foladori., P., & Ragazzi., M. (2000), "Upgrading of a small wastewater treatment plant in a cold climate region
using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system", Water Sci.Technol. 41, 177-185.
. Aygun Ahmet, et al., (2008) "Influence of High Organic Loading Rates on COD Removal and Sludge Production in Moving Bed
Biofilm Reactor", Environmental Engineering Science, Volume 25, Number 9, 2008
. Bengoa Gorka Zalakain, Moving Bed Technology for Small Communities.
. Brinkley John, "moving bed bio film reactor technology – a full-scale installation for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater."
. Delnavaz., M., et al (2008), "Biodegradation of aromatic amine compounds using moving bed biofilm reactors." Iran. J. Environ.
Health. Sci. and Eng., 5: 243-250.
. Hosseini., K.E., et al. (2011), "Comparison of overall performance between moving-bed and conventional sequencing batch reactor."
Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., 2011, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 235-244
. Hem., L. J., Rusten., B., & Odegaard., H. (1994), "Nitrification in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor", Water Research, 28, 1425.
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Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the salinity tolerance and relative acute toxicity of copper sulphate (CuSO4) under fresh water in varying salinity level, against Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. A total of 280 fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight; 20 ± 4 g; 4-6 weeks old) were used as test animals in this study. The test compound used was copper as CuSO4.5H2O analar grade (molecular weight 249.68 g). The dose response data were analyzed by probit analysis. The results showed that on the basis of daily mortality assessment, O. niloticus were unable to survive in water with salinity above 22ppt within a 24hr period, but the fish survived well at lower salinities below 12ppt. Based on 96hr LC50 values, toxicity of CuSO4 against the fingerlings increased with increase or decrease in salinity except at 12ppt where the toxicity was minimal. The significance of this study is in setting ecologically sound, safe limits that are relevant for the prevailing two hydrological seasons in the tropics for the discharge of heavy metals into lagoons and the advantages of breeding O. niloticus under typical brackish water conditions, instead of freshwater.
Keywords: Acute toxicity, Fingerlings, Copper sulphate, Oreochromis niloticus, Salinity
 M. B. Hill, and J. E. Webb, The ecology of Lagos Lagoon II. The Topography and Physical features of Lagos Harbour and Lagos Lagoon. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society. Bill. 241, 1958, 319-333.
 F.E. Ajagbe, A.O. Osibona, and A.A Otitoloju, Diversity of Edible Fishes of the Lagos Lagoon Nigeria and the Public Health Concerns Based on their Lead (Pb) content. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2(3), 2012, 55-62.
 E. O. Oyewo, Industrial Sources and Distribution of Heavy Metal in Lagos Lagoon and their Biological Effects on Estuarine Animals.doctoral dissertion, University of Lagos. 1998.
 E.A.Ajao, and S.O.Fagade, A Study of Sediments and Communities in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. Oil and Chemical Pollution, 7, 1991, 85-117.
 A. O. Eruola, G. C. Ufoegbune, Z. O. Ojekunle, A. A. Makinde, and I. O. Ogunyemi, (). Analytical Investigation of Pollutants in Lagos Coastal Waters, Nigeria. Advances in Analytical Chemistry, 1(1), 2011, 8-11.
 E.O. Oyewo, and K.N. Don-Pedro, The Toxicity Ranking Of Four Heavy Metals of Industrial Sources to Six Resident Animals of a Tropical Estuarine Lagoon. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, 83(1-4), 2002 87-97.
 K. Devagi, and A. Arfiziah, Accumulation and Depuration of Lead and Chromium Using Nerita Lineate. World Applied Science Journal, 6(9), 2009, 1205-1208.
 L.D. Chukwu, Studies of Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Sediment and Decapods Crustaceans from River Sasa. doctoral dissertation University of Lagos. 1991.
 A.A. Otitoloju, and K.N. Don-Pedro, Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) by Tympanotonus fuscatus var. radula (L) exposed to sublethal Concentrations of the Test metal Compounds in Laboratory Bioassay. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 3 2002, 17-29.
 A.A. Otitoloju, and K. N. Don-Pedro, Integrated Laboratory and Field Assessments of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Edible Periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus var. radula (L). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 57(3), 2004, 354-362.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Material Flow Analysis and Recycling of Newspaper in Allama Iqbal Town Lahore, Pakistan|
Abstract: The study deals with the extent of the recycling of Newspaper in Allama Iqbal Town (AIT) with a population of 117250. AIT was divided in the three categories as per its socioeconomic structure. Category A, high income group, category B, middle income group, category C, Low income group with the total of 13658 number of houses in all three groups. Two pathways involved in newspaper recycling were identified, one is the newspaper supply to the readers of AIT and the second one is the used newspaper cycle from the readers of AIT to the recycling units. Data on newspaper recycling was gathered from newspaper agencies, hawkers, and newspaper supply agents, residents of low, middle- and high-income groups, scavengers, junkshops and recycling unit. Sampling was carried in summer and winter to get the comparative data. Total of 560 samples were collected, thirty five from each category and total of 80 houses. Average newspaper supply to AIT was 1644tons/year where as average newspaper read in AIT was 1083.6 ton /year. Average Newspapers reused in AIT was 21.6 tons/year where as average newspaper recycled in AIT was 105.1tons/year. Total earning of the buyback centers and house person was 35028 Rs/day for 451.5 Kg/day and 3833Rs/day for 3010 Kg/day. Based on these finding, an effective environmental and economical program of newspaper recycling has been recommended as a Single Stream and Efficient Newspaper Recycling Program in which both formal and informal sectors are mutually benefited and justified.
Keywords: Generation, Collection, Analysis, Reuse, Recycle.
 Franklin, J. N and Macdonald, G. R (1982) Paper Manufacturing and Paper Making, McGraw Hill, Publishing Book Company, pp, 135-438.
 Lund, H.F. (2001) the McGraw Recycling Hand Book, 2nd Ed, McGraw Hill, New York.
 Solid Waste Management Department (2008) SWM Office Report, Lahore
 Batool, S. A. (2007) Environmental System Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Management Application of the IWM-2 Model, PhD Thesis College of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore,
 Cheng, Y. (2002) the composition Trend and impact of Urban Solid Waste in Beijing, Journal of Environmental Sciences, Springer netherlands Vol,135, pp, 21-30.
 (Vencatasawmy et al. 2000; Van Beukering and Bouman, 2001; Gaines and Stodolsky, 1993; Stodolsky and Mintz, 1993). Vencatasawmy et al., 2000;
 Van Beukering and Bouman, 2001
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 Koli, J.N and Mahamuni, G.R (2005) Paper manufacturing and Paper making, McGraw Hill publishing Book Company, pp, 135-438.
 (Pak, EPA, 2005). EPD, (2005), Recovery and Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste Reduction, Fact Sheet.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Degradation Rates of Soil Chemical Fertility As Influenced by Topography in Southeastern Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Ezeaku, P. I., Iwuanyanwu, F. C.|
Abstract: Understanding of soil-landscape influences on soil fertility parameters has become quite vital because of anthropogenic land mismanagement and soil degradation. Thirty soil samples were collected in 3 categories of land use (forest, grassland and cropped area – annual crops). Analytical characteristics of the samples were determined and soil chemical properties, toposequence and land use types statistically correlated using SAS. Degradation rates of selected soil chemical properties were determined. Results revealed variation in soil chemical properties within these land uses types. Amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered ranged from18.1 to 12.5 g/kg. SOC was not influenced by land use (p=0.252) but slope position (P<0.001). Soil organic nitrogen levels followed similar pattern to that of SOC. CEC value was high (>12cmol/kg) under forest, medium (8-10 cmol/kg) under annuals and low (7cmol/kg) under grasslands. For all slope positions, highest SDR (16.1) was found under grassland soils and least value (SDR = 11.0) obtained under forest soils. Low SDR implies better soil and vice versa for high SDR. Analysis showed that SDR was influenced by slope position as highest SDR (13.8) was found on foot slope and lower SDR at mid- (12.6) and up- (12.9) slopes, indicating greater management requirements for lower slope soils.
Keywords: soil fertility, degradation, land use change, management, catena
. P.N. Ahn. West African soils London Oxford University Press. 1975 pp 232.
. E.A. Akinrinde, and G.O. Obigbesa, . Evaluation of fertility status of selected soils for crop production in Five ecological areas of Nigeria. Proc. 26th Ann. Conf. Soil Sci. Soc. Nig., Ibadan, Oyo State., 2000 pp279-453
. F.E. Allison. Organic carbon. In: Black C.A. (ed). Methods of soil analysis part 2. American Soc. Agron. 9, 1982, 1367-1378.
. S.M. Amana, O.J. Jayeoba and O.O. Agbede. Effects of land use types on soil quality in a southern Guinea savannah, Nasarawa state of Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science. vol. 22(1), 2012, 181.
. J.B. Aune and R. Lal . Agricultural productivity in the tropics and critical limits of properties of oxisol, ultisol and alfisol. Tropical Agric. 74, 1997, 96-103
. Ayanaba, S.B. Tuckwell and D.S. Jenkinson. The effects of clearing and cropping on the organic reserves and biomass of tropical forest soils. Soil Biochem 8, 1996, 519-525
. H.K. Ayuba. Livestock grazing intensities and soil deterioration in the semi-arid rangeland of Nigeria: Effects on soil chemical status. Discov. Innovate 13 (3-4), 2001, 150-155
. G.R. Blake, and K.H. Hartge. Bulk density. In Methods of Soil Analysis, part 1, A. Klute (Ed.) Agron. No 9. USA Madison W.I. 1986, pp 370-373.
. R.H. Bray and N.T. Kurtz. Determination of total organic and availableform of phosphorus. Soil Sci. 59, 1945, 39-45.
. J.M. Bremmer, and C.S. Mulvaney. Total N, P. 895-926. In: Page et al (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison WI. 1982
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Abstract: India is one of the largest broiler producers in the world. Huge quantities of poultry wastages are generated and dumping of these wastes causes several environmental pollution problems. One of the serious problems is, it also serves as a nutritional source for the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and thereby causes disease outbreaks. This work addresses this environmental issue through enumeration, isolation and identification of microorganisms from the dumping sites of poultry wastages. Samples were collected from five different regions and bacterial isolates obtained were then purified into pure culture and identified based on their morphological, cultural and biochemical tests by standard microbiological procedures. The isolated pathogenic organisms were Vibrio choleare, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella pneumonia. The colonization of pathogenic bacteria in poultry waste dumping sites is highly hazardous to the environment and these poultry wastages need a prompt disposal system.
Keywords:Poultry wastage, Environmental pollution, Total Bacterial Count, IMViC, Enteric pathogens, Oppurtunistic pathogens.
 www.apeda.gov.in (Accessed on 14th October 2013).
 http://www.icra.in (Accessed on 15th October 2013).  Mehta R, Nambiar RG, The poultry industry in India. www.fao.org/ag/againfo/home/events/bangkok2007/docs, 2007.
 Agblevor FA, Beis S, Kim SS, Tarrant R, Mante NO, Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood Waste Management and Research, 12, 2010 2165-2172.
 Adeoye GO, Sridhar MKC and Mohammed OE, Poultry waste management for crop production: Nigerian experience. Waste Management and Research, 12, 1994, 2165-2172.
 Kelleher BP, Leahy JJ, Henihan AM, Dwyer TF, Sutton D, Leahy MJ, Advances in poultry litter disposal technology – a review. Elsevier 83, 2002, 27-36.  Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (9th Edition) By James Cappuccino, Natalie Sherman.  Steubing, P. M. 1993. Isolation of an unknown bacterium from soil, 14, 1993, 81-114.  Coker AO, Olugasa BO, Adeyemi AO, Abattoir waste water quality in Southwestern Nigeria. Proceedings of the 27th WEDC conference, Lusaka, Zambia, Loughborough University press, United Kingdom. 2001, 329-331.
 http://www.niir.org/profiles/profiles/meat-chicken-egg-pork-fish-processing/z,,32,0,a/index.html (Accessed on 15th October 2013).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Air Quality and Environmental Health in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Ewona, I. O., Osang, J. E, Obi, E. O., Udoimuk A. B. , Ushie, P. O.|
Abstract: Our scientific understanding of the spectrum of environmental health effect of air pollution has increased, and numerous studies are finding important health effects from air pollution at levels once considered safe. This paper focuses on air pollution and its adverse health outcomes in Calabar. The Data for Temperature (0C), Relative Humidity (%), wind speed (m/s), pressure (psi), Cloud Cover (oktas), Heat Radiation (kw/m3), wind Direction, NO2 (ppm), NO (ppm), 02, SO2 (ppm), H2S (ppm), CO2, VOC(ppm), NH3 (ppm), SPM (ppm) and Noise dBA were Collected from Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Cross River State Ministry of Environment in conjunction with Niger Delta Development Commission which Covers a period of two years (October 2010 to September 2012). The data obtained were daily values from which future assumptions were made. Based on these data, a simple Descriptive analysis was employed. The results shown in tables 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and figs 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 recorded a non significant value of CO, CO2, NO2, HO2 H3, CH4 and VOCs. The statement however provides advice to health providers on how to integrate issues regarding air quality and environmental health into patient education and environmental health advocacy. There are also recommendations to the government, industries and the general public on the promotion of effective air pollution policies to ensure continued protection of lives.
Key Words:. Environmental issues, air pollution, air quality and health
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Abstract: Agroforestry technologies have been extensively researched and introduced to smallholder farmers in Nigeria for over two decades. Despite the research and extension effort over this period, not many farmers have adopted these technologies. In view of this, the study was conducted to assess factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry practices. The study was carried out in Toungo Southeastern fringe of Adamawa State, Nigeria, situated in the Southern guinea Savanna zone. Data were collected with pre-tested questionnaires administered to 100 farmers-household heads, randomly selected from the two Districts of the Local Government Area. Information was gathered on the age, gender, marital status, educational level and years of farming experience, major occupation household size and farm size of the respondents. Others include farmers' awareness of and involvement in Agroforestry systems, willingness to plant, retain or take care of trees planted, tree species commonly retained/planted on farmland and other information relevant to the study. Data were analyzed using a descriptive statistics, T-test and χ2 models.
Index Terms: Agroforestry, Taungya, Smallholder, Farmers, Adoption, Willingness
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 Adekunle , V. A. (2009). Contributions of agroforestry practice in Ondo State, Nigeria, to environmental sustainability and sustainable agricultural production. Afrika Focus -Volume 22, Nr. 2, 2009 -pp. 27-40
 Adewusi, H.G. 2006 Agroforestry Practices and Species Preference in Kano State. Potentials for Improvement. Production Agriculture and Technology (PAT). Vol.2. 2-4.
 Adewuyi, S. A and Okunmadewa, F.Y (2001). Economic Efficiency of Crop Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria, Nigerian Agricultural development Studies, 2(i): 45 – 47.
 Ajayi, O. C., Akinnifesi, F. K., Sileshi, G., & Chakeredza, S. (2007). Adoption of renewable soil fertility replenishment technologies in the southern African region: Lessons learnt and the way forward. Natural Resources Forum, 31(4), 306-317.
 Ajayi, O. C., Franzel, S., Kuntashula, E., & Kwesiga, F. (2003). Adoption of improved fallow technology for soil fertility management in Zambia: Empirical studies and emerging issues. Agroforestry Systems, 59(3), 317-326.
 Ajayi, O. C., Massi, C., Katanga, R., & Kabwe, G. (2006). Typology and characteristics of farmers planting improved fallows in southern Africa. Zambian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(2), 1-5.
 Amaza, P.S and Tashikalma, A.K (2003). Technical Efficiency of Groundnuts in Adamawa State, Nigeria, Journal of Arid Agriculture, 13: 127 – 1311.