Version-1 (Sep–Oct 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Nutrient Compostion and Functional Properties of Afzelia Africana Seed.|
|Authors||:||Adebayo, S. F., Ojo O. C.|
Abstract: Afzelia africana seed were processed into flour in the laboratory and evaluated for its proximate , mineral composition and functional properties . The results of the evaluation showed that roasting increases the crude protein content from 18.75 – 21.90, crude fat from 16.90 – 22.70 and crude fibre from 0.13-2.00 %. The moisture content reduces greatly on roasting from 7.45 -3.00%. Roasting significantly reduces the mineral composition (P<0.05) of the seed flour. The functional properties has significant effect (P<0.05) on the water absorption capacity , Oil absorption capacity and emulsion capacity with values of 140.00 -125.00g/g , 88.00 -60.00g/g , 50.00 -30.00ml/g respectively. The various parameters investigated reveal the potential of Afzelia africana as a seed that could serve as a source of health benefit when used as food supplement in food formulation.
Key words: underutilized seeds, functional properties, proximate composition.
. Adeyeye, E.I. (1998). The relative merits of the presence of hull on the nutritional qualities of the African yam bean flour. Nahurung ,8 (42):84-88.
. Aisegbu , J.E. (1987). Some biochemical; evaluation of fluted pumpkin seed. J Sci. Food Agric. 40:151-158.
. AOAC , (1998). Official Methods of Analysis . 17th Edition , Washington DC USA. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Pp 9-88
. Deshapande ,S.S. (1992). Food legumes in human Nutrition . a personal perspective . Food Sci Nutri. 32:333-63.
. FAO, (2000). Food Insecurity : When people live with hunger and fear starvation .Rome ,Italy :FAO.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Screening, Gene Sequencing and Biosurfactant Production from Pichia Fermentans Isolated From Dairy Effluents|
|Authors||:||Jolly Mariam Johny|
Abstract: Microbial surfactants are surface metabolites that produced by bacteria, yeast, and fungi having varied chemical structure and properties. These molecules reduce surface tension between aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. Recently biosurfactants are potential alternatives for chemically synthesized surfactants having varied industrial applications. In this study, we collected fermented dairy whey waste samples from a small dairy farm house located in Salem and Coimbatore and a total of fifty yeast strains were isolated, screened for biosurfactant activity, and cultured by enriching carbon and nitrogen sources. These were conducted using oil displacement technique, drop collapse method, microplate assay method, and emulsification activity determination (EA). Among fifty isolates, SS2 yeast strains exhibited positive for biosurfactant activity. . The yeast strain SS2 exhibited an oil clearance diameter of 12 mm with an interpolated surfactant concentration of 2.77 micrograms and measured an emulsification index is 61.42 with a height of emulsion 17.2 mm after 120 hours. Biochemical analysis and molecular characterization with 18S rRNA gene sequence indicates that yeast strain SS2 belongs to Pichia species and closely related to Pichia fermentans. Studies of biosurfactant production on various carbon and nitrogen sources were performed. The communication looks at the future perspective of biosurfactant production and its application in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sector.
Keywords: Microbial surfactants, 18S rRNA-ITS gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans
. Kitamoto, D., Isoda, H. and Nakahara, T. 2002 A Review of Functions of Glycolipids Biosurfactants-from Energy-Saving Materials to Gene Delivery Carriers, Journal of Bioengineering, 94(3), 187-201.
. Benincasa, M., Contiero, J., Manresa, M.A. and Moraes, I.O. 2002, J. Food Eng., 54:283–288.
. Desai, J. and Banat, I.M. 1997 Microbial Production of Surfactant and Their Commercial Potential, American Society for Microbiology, 61(1), 47-64.
. Khire, J. M. and Khan, M. I. (1994) MEOR: Microbes and the subsurface environment. Enzyme Microb. Tech., 16, 258–259.
. Banat, I. M., Makkar, R. S., and Cameotra, S. S. (2000) Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 53, 459–508.
. Banat, I.M. 1995, Bioresour. Technol., 51:1–12.
. Banat, I.M. 1995, Acta Biotechnol., 15:251–267
. O‟Connor, L. 2002, Ind. Bioprocessing, 24:10–11
. Koma, D., Hasumi, F., Yamamoto, E., Ohta, T., Chung, S. Y., and Kubo, M. (2001) Biodegradation of long-chain n-paraffins from waste oil of car engine by Acinetobacter sp. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 91, 94–96
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Study of Imatinib Cardiotoxicity In Adult Male Rabbits|
|Authors||:||Nermeen A M Hassan, Mohamed M. Yousef|
Abstract: Imatinib (Imb) mesylate is fully approved for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase after failure of interferon- therapy in blast crisis and in accelerated phase. Cardiotoxicity is an important consideration in the evaluation of cancer chemotherapy, because chemotherapy-induced myocardial damage might be irreversible and lethal. The aim of this work is to evaluate the cardiotoxicity of Imatinib mesylate following repeated administration of different doses and periods in adult male rabbits. fifty four adult male rabbits were utilized and divided equally into 3 groups: control group (group I), low dose Imb group (group II); received orally Imatinib mesylate (50 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and high dose Imb group (group III); received orally Imatinib mesylate (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated by electrocardiograph (ECG), biochemical and histopathological examination. Specimens and samples were taken 2 and 4 weeks from the start of the experiment and 2 weeks after drug withdrawal. ECG revealed left ventricular contractile dysfunction and mild diastolic dysfunction. Imb treated groups resulted in significant increases (≤ 0.001) in serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnc T), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity levels. Cardiac tissue of rats treated with imatinib showed significantly increased cardiac MDA production level and significant decreased (≤ 0.001) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity level and Total nitrate/nitrite (Nox) content. Those changes were proportional increase with increase dose and time of Imb and irreversible after stoppage of drugs. Imatinib mesylate have significant cardiotoxicity that alarming oncologists to avoid medication errors with Imb either large dose or for long periods administration that may have resulted in fatalities.
Key Words: Imatinib, cardiotoxicity, electrocardiography, cardiac troponi
 R Hehlmann, A. Hochhaus and M. Baccarani, Chronic myeloid leukemia, Lancet, 370, 2007, 342- 350.  M A Siddiqui and L.J. Scott, Imatinib: a review of its use in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Drugs, 67(5), 2007, 805- 820.
 M Talpaz, N. P. Shah, H. Kantarjian, et al, "Dasatinib in imatinib-resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (24): (2006), 2531–41.
 K Cwynarski, R. Laylor, E. Macchiarulo et al, Imatinib inhibits the activation and proliferation of normal T lymphocytes in vitro. Leukemia; 18, 2004, 1332- 1339.
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Abstract: Total dry matter production per hectare by whole stands of Gmelina arborea plantation age series, ranging from 20 to 30 years and planted at an espacement of 2.4 x 2.4m on acid soils of Ukpon River Forest Reserve in Cross River State Nigeria was estimated, using the mean tree method, to be 144830.870kg, 150383.438kg, 238446.836kg, 239630.868kg, 251934.720kg and 252355.180kg at age 20, 22, 23, 24, 26 and 30 years respectively. The values indicate that biomass accumulation varies considerably with age as found out by other experimenters. The oldest stand of 30 years accumulated the highest biomass while the youngest of 20 years stand has the lowest. Biomass accumulation in the stemwood, stembark, branches and leaves consistently increased, though at different rates, within the period while the foliage mass tends to decreased with increasing age. The distribution of the above ground biomass along the various tree components also changed with age and tree development. At all the stages, the stemwood consistently formed the highest proportion of the biomass in all the ages, followed by branches, stembark and leaves in descending order.
Key words: Above Ground Biomass, Age series, Accumulation and Distribution
. Annon, R. O and Baskerville, O. L (1985). Use of logarithmic equation in the estimation of plant Biomass. Canadian Journal of Forestry Resources. 2:49-53.
. Borman, F. H and Likens, G. E (2001). Pattern and process in forested ecosystem. Spring-verlage. New York.
. Canham, C. D and Marks, P. L (2005). The process of woody plants to disturbance pattern of establishment and growth In: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patchy Dynamics. Ed (S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White) academic press. New York pp. 197-216.
. Decei, G. and Penner, M. (2009). Measuring leaf area index with the LI-COR LAI 2000 in pine stands. Ecology 75: 1507-1511.
. Egunjobi, J. K (2001). An evaluation of five methods of estimating biomass of an even-age plantation of Pinuscaribean. L. Decol. Plant 11: 109-116.
. Egunjobi, J. K and Bada, S. O (2009). Biomass and Nutrient distribution in stands of Pinus caribaea L. in the dry forest zone of Nigeria. Biotropica 11(2): 130-135.
. Feller, M.C. (2012). Biomass and Nutrient Distribution in two Eucalyptus forest ecosystem. Australian Journal. Ecological. 5:309-33.
. Greaves, A. (2003). Site studies and associated productivity of Gmelinaarborea in Nigeria, M.Sc thesis. University College North Wales. Bangor. pp. 163.
. Johnson, C.M., Zaring, D. J. and Johnson, A. H (2000). Post disturbance above ground biomass accumulation in global secondary forests. Ecology 81: 1395-1401.
. Jerome, et al (2009). Spatial and Temporal variations on biomass in a tropical forest Journal of Ecology. Vol. 91: 2440-252.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Rehabilitation by Chemical Treatment for Sand Media of Rapid Sand Filtration units for Sangli City|
|Authors||:||Mr. Gopal M. Bhosale, Prof. V. D. Salkar|
Abstract: Rapid sand filtration is key unit process in water treatment. This process is a combination of normal cycle i.e. filtration followed by backwashing. Backwash is up flow cycle for cleaning of clogged media, air scour is used to remove deposit from filter media by vigorous agitation, and wash water is used to remove deposits from the filter bed. The combined action of air and water should return the media quickly to its original perfectly clean state for the next cycle. It is seen that, after backwashing media does not come in clean state due to poor backwashing and next cycle starts with trapped particles. This leads to accumulation of deposits on filter media which results into deterioration of media and reduces filter run and gives poor water quality. After some years these deposits turns into hard deposits which are very difficult to remove. This paper focuses on the methods for sampling of sand media, characterization and chemical treatments on media to clean and reuse it instead of replacing old media with new one.
Keywords: Specific deposit, Filter media, characterization.
. Brouckaert et al.,(2006), "Predicting the efficiency of deposit removal during filter backwash", Water Institute of South Africa (WISA), Biennial Conference, Vol. 32, No. 5, 532-541.
. Clements M. and Haarhoff J. (2004) "Filter media expansion during backwash: The effect of biological activity", Water SA, Vol. 30, No. 5, 52-55.
. Clements M. (2005), "Changes in Mechanical Behaviour of Filter media Due to Biological Growth", Unpublished D. Engg degree thesis, University of Johannesburg.
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Abstract: In this work, the effect of infrared drying temperatures between 40°C and 70°C on the antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale was studied. The total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) were analyzed. The evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ginger extracts was determined using a disc diffusion method against six bacterial cultures. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by means of DPPH and β-carotene assay. When comparing the fresh with the corresponding dehydrated ginger samples, it was shown that the antioxidant activity of the ginger extracts decreased as the drying temperature increased. Thermal degradation, especially at 60 and 70°C resulted in a notable reduction in TPC. However, TFC was not affected by drying temperatures. Results have shown a minor loss of antibacterial activity when drying temperature increased.
Keywords: Zingiber Officinale, Infrared drying, Ginger, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial
 E. Lee and Y. J. Surh, Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by pungent vanilloids, -gingerol and -paradol, Cancer Letters, 134, 1998, 163–168.
 R. Aeschbach, J. Löliger, B. C. Scott, A. Murcia, J. Butler, B. Halliwell, et al. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32, 1994, 31–36.
 Y. Sekiwa, K. Kubota, A. Kobayashi, Isolation of novel glucosides related to gingerdiol from ginger and their antioxidative activities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2000, 373–377.
 J. P., Bartley, P. Foley, Supercritical fluid extraction of Australian-grown ginger (Zingiber officinale), Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 66 (3), 1994, 365–371.
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Abstract: Due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Port Said city and surroundingsover the last few decades, metals have been continuously emitted into the urban environment and introduced a serious threat to the human health. Accordingly, Magnetic susceptibility measurements and laboratory soil analyses have been conducted in some selected sites of possible potential risk in Port Said city and surroundings in order to evaluate the current status of heavy metals contamination and todetermine its potential sources. The magnetic susceptibility survey has been carried out using a systematic grid pattern intheindustrial area and the solid waste dump site of Port Said city. The soil samples have been collected from the sites showing high values of magnetic susceptibility. The concentrations of 10 heavy metals Fe, Cd, Mo, Mn, Ni, V, Cu, Pb, Zn and Co were determined in the soil samples.Also, the contamination factor and geochemical accumulation indices were calculated to assess for the heavy metals contamination in the studied sites.The interpretation of the obtained field measurements and the laboratory analyses indicated that. Cd, Zn and Pb providethe highest potential risk, while the other heavy metals are in the safe limits.
Keywords: Environmental assessment, Environmental magnetism, Heavy metals contamination, Magnetic susceptibility, urban soil analysis,
 Kim K.W., MyungJ.H., AhnJ.S., Chon H.T.. Heavy metal contamination in dusts and stream sediments in the Taejon area, Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 64,1998, 409–419
 Ayoubi S., Karimi R., Jalalian A., Sheikh-Hosseini A., Afyuni M.. Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran. Journal of Applied Geophysics 74,2011, 1–7
 Duffus, J.H., ―Heavy metals‖—a meaningless term?. Pure and Applied Chemistry 74,2002, 793–807.
 Wang, X.S., Qin, Y., Sang, S.X..Accumulation and sources of heavy metals in urban topsoils: a case study from the city of Xuzhou, China. Environmental Geology 48, 2005, 101–107.
 Khan S., Cao Q., Zheng Y. M., Huang Y. Z., and ZhuY. G.. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 152 (3),2008, 686–692.
 Zhang M. K., Liu Z. Y. & Wang H. Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 41 (7),2010a, 820–831
 Wang X. S. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Xuzhou urban topsoils by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Journal of Applied Geophysics 92, 2013, 76–83
 Environmental description of port said governorate (2007), Arabic version.
 KT user guide: KT-10 magentic susceptibility meter, Teraplus, Ver 1.6
 Muller, G. Index of Geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geo. J. 2, 1969, 108–118
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Abstract: In nature, during evolution many senses and systems have developed in the organisms for their survival. It is known that evolution uses the process of mutation for creating better chances of survival of the species according to their surroundings. Generally an organism protects itself for its own survival but there are some facts presented in this paper which support the theory that in nature, the existence of species is given more priority over survival of an organism and has affected evolution of various organisms.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Humic Substances and Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Carbon As Influenced By Land Use in Southeastern Adamawa State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||G. Y. Jamala, D. O. Oke|
Abstract: Land use management has been observed to affect labile, stable and humified soil organic matter fractions, but the magnitude of these changes has not been established in the Southern Guinea savanna of Adamawa State, northeastern Nigeria. The study investigated effects of five land use management systems (undisturbed natural forest, crop land, grazing reserve, forest plantation and fallow land) on the status of humic substances and mineral-associated soil organic carbon. Three transects that are 100 m apart were cut in each of the study site and four sampling plots of 20 m × 20 m in dimension were laid in alternate positions along each transect at 50 m interval. Soil core samples were collected diagonally at a depth of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm and at three points in each plot using a 3cm diameter soil auger. These results showed that both mineral-associated and humified organic matter are better protected under natural forest, plantation and grazing reserve and consequently less vulnerable to mineralization. The study revealed that seven years fallow contribution to soil organic carbon was minimal.
Keywords: Land Use, Humic substances, Mineral-associated soil organic carbon, Influence
. Adejuyigbe, C.O., O.A. Agbeyangi and G.O Adeoye . (2000). Soil organic matter fraction and micro arthropod population under agroforestry trees with contrasting litter quality. Proceeding of the 26th annual conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Ibadan, Oct 30th – Nov. 3rd 2000. p. 203 – 206.
. Adebayo, A.A. (1999). Climate I&II (Sunshine, Temperature, Evaporation and Relative humidity: In Adebayo, A.A. and Tukur, A.L. (eds) Adamawa in Maps, Paraclete publishers Yola-Nigeria. Pp 15 – 30.
. Agboola A.A. (2000). Advances in Soil Organic matter research. Proceeding of the 26th annual conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Ibadan, Oct 30th – Nov. 3rd 2000. p. 172-187
. Agboola A.A. and John A. I. Omueti (1982). Soil fertility problems and its management in tropical Africa, In Int. Conf. on Land Clearing and Develo. Proceedings Vol. 2, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria
. Albiach, R., Canet R., Pomares F.and Ingelmo F. (2001). Organic matter components, aggregate stability and biological activity in a horticultural soil fertilized with different rates of two sewage sludges during ten years. Biores. Technol. 77:109.114
. Alexandra, B. and B. Jose. (2005). The importance of soil organic matter. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Soils Bulletin.
. Aluko A.P. (2001). Impact of Forestry on the nutrient status in degraded soil for environmental management at Onne: Proceedings of the 27th annual conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria held at Abuja FCT 17th – 21st Sept. p.100 - 109.
. Aluko A.P and J.A. Fagbenro, (2000). The role of tree species and Land use systems in organic matter and nutrient availability in degraded ultisol of Onne, South – South Nigeria. P. 289 – 293.
. Anderson, D. W., R.D., Heil C.V., Cole, and P.C., Deulsch .(1983). Identification and characterization of ecosystem at different integrative levels. In Lowrance, R., R. Todd, L. Asmussen, and R., Leonard (eds). Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural ecosystem. Spc. Publ.23, Gergia, USA: college of Agriculture, University of Gergia.
. Annongu, .A A., J.K. Joseph and F.Liebert. (2004). Effect of anaerobic fermentation and lyle treated Prosopis africana seed meal on the nutritional and heamatological responses of harcoc chicks. Journal of raw materials Research (JORMAR)\(1):33 – 41.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Development of High Protein Ice-Cream Using Milk Protein Concentrate|
|Authors||:||Vidisha Tomer, Arun Kumar|
Abstract: Vanilla ice cream contained 9.56% milk fat, 11.0% milk SNF, 13% beet sugar, and 4% 36 dextrose- equivalent corn syrup solids. The control contained 3.74% protein and was not supplemented with milk protein concentrates. Treatments 2 and 3 (T2 and T3) were supplemented with milk protein concentrates and contained 40, 60 per cent increased protein level respectively. The ash and lactose content of all the treatments showed a decreasing trend as the protein content increased. Maximum overrun was obtained for T2. Viscosity also decreased as the protein content increased. Milk protein level influenced ice crystal size; with increased protein, the ice crystal size was favourably reduced in treatments. In terms of overall acceptability, it was however observed that T1 (5.4) was scored higher than T2 (4.8). T4 was the most acceptable ice cream. It is concluded that it is possible to produce acceptable ice cream with higher levels of protein.
Keywords: Ice cream; Protein; MPC
1]. Anema S.G., Pinder D.N., Hunter R.J. and Hemar Y. (2006) Effects of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC85) Food Hydrocolloids. 20 (2–3): 386–393
. Alvarez, V. B., Wolters C. L., Vodovotz Y., and Ji T.. (2005) Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates. J. Dairy Sci. 88:862–871.
. Koxholt M.M.R, Eisenmann B, and Hinrichs J. Effect of the Fat Globule Sizes on the Meltdown of Ice Cream
. Walstra, P., and M. Jonkman. (1998). The role of milkfat and protein in ice cream. Pages 17–24 in Ice Cream. W. Buchheim, ed. International Dairy Federation Special Issue 9803. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.
. Schmidt, K. 1994. Effect of milk protein and stabilizer on ice milk quality. J. Food Qual. 17:9–19.
. Koxholt MMR, Eisenmann B, Hinrichs J. 2001. Effect of the fat globule sizes on the meltdown of ice cream. J Dairy Sci 84:31–7.
. Patel M. R, Baer R. J, and Acharya M. R. (2006) Increasing the Protein Content of Ice Cream. 89 (5): 1400-1406.
. Ruger, P. R., R. J. Baer, and K. M. Kasperson. 2002. Effect of double homogenization and whey protein concentrate on the texture of ice cream. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1684–1692.
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Abstract: Vitellaria paradoxa is an important economic tree that plays a vital role in support of rural livelihood in an area where its uses are well understood. This study was conducted to examine the socio-economic contribution of Vitellaria paradoxa in support of rural livelihood in Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) respondents were randomly selected for the study. Majority (63%) of the respondents engaged in Shea butter enterprise were women. The result indicted that about 76% of the respondents had no formal education, 53% pointed out that their primary occupation is Shea butter processing even though they are also involved in other form of activities in order to diversify their economy. The result shows that 67% of the respondents often picked Shea fruits under trees which they use as input, 27% maintained that they both picked and also buy more Shea nuts from pickers. The quantity of Shea nuts picked per day varied form ¼ to 1 bag per day (77%), 2-4 bags (17%) and 5-8 bags (3%) per day. Also majority (73%) of the respondents use manual method for Shea butter processing, (23%) mentioned that they use mechanized method of processing. All the respondents in the study area maintained that Shea trees play vital role in support of rural livelihood. 60% of the respondent's mentioned that the major challenges encountered are lack of processing equipment, technical skills, low inputs and capital. About 90% of the respondents mentioned that they do not use to get any assistant from government or non-governmental organization. When the respondents were asked on how these challenges could be addressed? About 90% of them maintain that government should provide the input, equipment and also provide modern training to enhance their llocal skill.
Keywords: Livelihood, Poverty, Shea nuts, Women, Economy, Rural
. Adamawa State Economic Development Strategy, ADSEED (2004)
. Adamawa State Planning Commission October, 2004 ABTI press
. Addaquay, J. 2004. The Shea butter Value Chain, Refining in West Africa WATH Technical Report No 3, Dakar, WATH
. Adebayo, AA(1999) Climate I &ii (Sun Shine, Temperature, Evaporation and relative humidity): in Adebayo, AA and Tukur, A E (ads) Adamawa in Maps, parakeet publishers Yola. Nigeria. PP 15-30
. Adekanye, T.O. (1988). The markets of foodstuffs in western Nigeria. In Adekanye, T.O. (eds); Readings in Agricultural Marketing Longman, Ibadan. Pp 12 – 22.
. Agbanelo, D U(2006). Promotion of Standardization in Africa for Collective Good contribution to Regional International Expert Consultation on Establishment and Harmonization of Africa Regional standards for Shea butter and Shea kernel, Accra, ARSO
. Arene, C.J. (1988). Introduction to Agricultural Marketing Analysis for Developing Economic. Fulladu Publishing Company Nsukka, Nigeria. Pp 1–23.
. Aryeetey, E (1996). Rural Finance in Africa: "Institutional Development Access for Poor". Annual world Bank Conference on Development Economics Report, World Bank/IBRD, PP: 149- 173.Carette C Malotaux M Leeuwen M & Tolkamp M (20090, Shea nut and butter in Ghana: Opportunities And constraints for local processing. Wageninggen University, the Netherlands, and The Residence foundation.
. Hall, J.B, D.P Aebischer, H.F Tomlinson, Eosei - Amaining and J.R hindle, (1996). Vittellaria paradoxa: A monorgraph. School of Agricultural forest Science publication number: 8, Bangor, University of Wolves.
. Holtzman, J (2004). The Shea butter value chain: Study synthesis and Recommendation for WATH. WATH Technical report No. 1, Dakar WATH
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Determination of Lead and Zinc in urine in Saudi population|
|Authors||:||Hatem Abdel Moniem Abmed, Muhammad Naeem Janjua, Jawaher Soliuman Mosafar Albediea|
Abstract: Cigarettes contain over 4000 chemicals including heave metals like lead and zinc; over 20 are probably carcinogenic and over 60 are mutagenic. Approximately 11% of the lead in the cigarette enters the smoke, and half of that is believed to enter the smoker's lungs. Zinc is also present in cigarettes (average 24μg/gm) and about 70% of it is transferred to the smoke. Prolonged exposure to lead and zinc is associated with multiple health hazards and may also lead to various neurological and metabolic disorders. In the present study, Lead and Zinc were determined in urine samples of smokers (n=30), passive smokers (n=30) and non-smokers (n=17) from different districts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Analysis was performed using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GFAAS) for lead and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) for zinc. The mean urine lead and zinc concentration in smokers was higher than non-smokers, while concentration of lead and zinc in urine samples of passive smokers was more or equal to smokers. Our results have shown that available concentrations of lead and zinc are higher in smokers and passive smoker's urine than non-smokers, and a correlation exists between lead and zinc concentrations and the period of smoking.
Key words: GFAAS, FAAS, Lead, Zinc and Urine
 Richard, R., Bake and Christopher J. Proctor, (1990), (The origin and Properties of Environmental Tobacco Smoke), Environ. Int., 16: 231-235.
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 Daube, H., G. Scherer, K. Riedel, T. Ruppert, A.R. Tricker, P. Rosenbaum and F. Adikofer, (1997). "DNA adducts in human placenta in relation to tobacco smoke exposure and plasma antioxidant status". J. cancer. Res. Clin. Oncol., 123: 141-151.
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 Hu, H: Human Health and heavy metals exposure. In: life support: The environment and human health, McCally, M. (ed), MIT press, (2002), 1 – 13.
 ATSDR: Toxicological profile for cadmium. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia, (1999).
 Drebler, J., Schulz, K., (2002). "lethal manganese cadmium intoxication". A case report. Arch Toxicol., 76: 449 – 451.
 Underwood, EJ: "Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition", 4th Ed., Academic Press, New York, (1977): 1 – 421.
 ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Zinc. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia, (2005).