Version-1 (Sep–Oct 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Environmental Case Study of Water Quality of Ancient Wells- Masabi Boudi and Narasimha Temple Well of Bijapur|
|Authors||:||Dr. Geeta. S. Patil, Dr. S. B. Patil|
Abstract: Ancient historic wells or boudies, built by Adil Shahi kings in Bijapur are the huge sources of water in the drought place of northern Karnataka (India). They stand neglected and polluted. Masabi Boudi and Narasimha Temple well are two wells selected for the study. We have studied the water quality in terms of physico-chemical, biochemical, phytoplanktonic and bacteriological properties depthwise. Masabi Boudi exhibited a rare phenomenon of vertical inverse thermal stratification whereas in Narasimha Temple well winter thermal stratification broke in summer and monsoon. Phytoplankton occurrence was rare in Masabi Boudi. Desmids showed their pollution tolerance throughout the study in Masabi Boudi. Glucose, protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid in the water reads the utrophication, which resulted the growth of E-coli. Algal maximum was followed soon after the E-coli were in excess in both the wells. Chlorides, nitrates and nitrogenous content stated the rich nutritional status. The self purification of water takes place naturally as a quality control. There is a natural symmetry in the biological science between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton and high enrichment with organic matter provided a measure of stabilization to this eco-system. In all, Masabi Boudi shows better water quality than Narasimha Temple well.
Key words - Bacterioplankton, Boudi, Inverse thermal stratification, Nutritional status, Phytoplankton.
 HUTCHINSON, G.E. 1975 A. Treatise on Lymnology, Vol II. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
 JANA, B.B. 1979 Temporal Plankton Succession and Ecology of a Tropical Tank In West Bengal. Int. Reve. Ges. Hydrobiol. 64: 661-671
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 KHAN. M. A & D.P.ZUTSHI,1980 Primary Productivity & tropic status of KashmirHimalayanLake Hydro-Biologia 68-38
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 ZAFAR.A.R. 1968 .Certain Aspects of Distribution Pattern of Phytoplankton in the lakes of Hyderabad. Proc. Symp. Recent Adv. Trop. Ecol: 368-375
 GEORGE. M. G. 1961 Diurnal Variations in Two Shallow Ponds in Delhi, India Hydro-Biologia. 18 (3) 265-273
 DAVIS.C.C 1973 A Seasonal Quantitative Study Of the Phytoplankton of Bauline Long Pond, A New Found LandLake. Le Naturaliste Can. 100: 85-105
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide Estimation from Modeled NOX of a Thermal Power Plant|
|Authors||:||S. Anand Kumar Varma, Dr. M Srimurali|
Abstract: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is noxious, phototoxic and causes eutrophication. NO2 is one of the major precursors of ground level ozone pollution. Emission rates and emission concentrations of various pollutants from stationary sources of power plant emissions are calculated using Emission Inventory methodologies. Ground level concentrations of Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution are predicted by Gaussian dispersion model. About 40% of the Nitrogen oxide pollution is produced from point source of Electric power plant boilers. In this paper it is proposed to estimate ground level concentrations of Nitrogen dioxide at various receptor points of a Thermal Power Project. The estimations are made from modeled Nitrogen oxides of Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project, (Coordinates: 14°42'52"N 78°27'29"E) Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Key words: Power Plant Emissions; Stationary Sources; Nitrogen oxides; Estimation; Ground Level Concentrations; Phototoxic; Precursors; ozone pollution.
. Arya. S. P.,―Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion‖, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.
. Barrat, Rod (2001), ―Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling‖ (1st Edition ed.), Earthscan Publications, ISBN 1-85383-642-7.
. Bluett J. et al,―Good practice guide for atmospheric dispersion modeling‖, Ref. ME522, Ministry of the Environment,Wellington, New Zealand, June 2004. Source: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/ publications/air.
. Carrascal M. D, Puigcerver M, Puig P., ―Sensitivity of Gaussian plume model to dispersion specification‖.
. Colls, Jeremy (2002) ―Air Pollution‖, (1st Edition ed.). Spon Press (UK), ISBN 0-415-25565-1.
. Milton R. Beychok, ―Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion‖
. Pasquill,F.,1971, ―Atmospheric dispersion of pollution‖, Q.J.R.MET. Soc., 97, 369
. Tyler Fox, Leader ―Applicability Of Appendix W Modeling Guidance For The 1-Hour N02 National Ambient Air Quality Standard‖ United States Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, nc 27711jun. 28. 2010
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Abstract: Water is life and sanitation is the way of life .Both are critical for leading a quality life. A colossal 80% of the diseases stem from consumption of unsafe water and of poor sanitation conditions .The most notable cause for the nitrate contamination of ground water is the release of waste waters at or near the ground water. In the field of agriculture the retention of nitrogen in the surface soils is of vital concern is the application of plant fertilizers. Nitrate enters the ground water system and reduce in concentration down slope from the source due to the dilution offered by the ground water flow
Key words: 1) Nitrate contamination of ground waters 2) Impacts of nitrate pollution 3)Analysis of chlorides and nitrates 4)Results and discussions
. Mariappan P, VYegneswaran & T.Vasudevan (1999) "Correlation between floride and alkalinity in groundwater of florosis Endemic Salem District".IJEP20(3): 182-187.
. Mariappan P, VYegneswaran & T.Vasudevan (2000) "Ground water quality fluctuation with water taste level In Thiruppathur Block of Sivagandai District, Tamilnadu" POLL.RES 19(2): 225-229.
. Mariappan P, VYegneswaran & T.Vasudevan (2000) "Control of fluoride content in the groundwater scope for an interdisciplinary approach" VOL 20-page no.421-426.
. MC.Mohan .G, U.A Harned (1998) "Effect of environmental setting on sediment, Nitrogen and phosperous concentrations in Albearable-pamtics drainage basin, North Carlona and Virginia, U.S.A." EN!. Management VoL22, No.6 page no.887-903.
. MahapatraD, B.Das and V.Chakravarthy (2001)" A correlation study on physico chemical characterstics of ground water in Paradip Area" POLL RES 20 (3): 401-406.
. Ramaraju RK, N.Mana Mohana Rao, M.Venkatachalappa & G.Ranganna (1998). " Nitrate Pollution in ground water by septic tank system - A case study"
. Shriparna Saxena and Pandey Shrivastava (2002) " Ground water quality of a typical Urban Settlement: A case Study ofImpart of Town Planning" POLL RES. 21 (2): 223-226.
. Singh.R.P, B.S.Chauhan, Devendra Swaroop & YS.Yadav (2000). "Seasonal Variations in Ground Water quality of Agra City" Indian lENVIRON HL TH VoL42 No.2 Page 59-69
. Srinivasa Rao.B & P.Venkateswarlu (2000) "Evaluation of ground water quality in Chirala Town, Prakasam District" Page No: 161-164
. Srinivas CH, Ravisankar Piska, C.Venkateswaran, M.S.Satyanarayana Rao & R.Ravinder Reddy (2000) " Studies on Ground Water Quality ofHyderabad" ROLL RES 19(2): 285-289
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Abstract: A comparative metal analysis was carried to determine the deposition and composition of metals in the soft tissues of freshwater bivalves; Anodonta anatina, A. marginata and A. implicata, and to establish their role as the possible routes to which metallic elements may get into the food chain. Collections of molluscs were made from four different sites along the bank and substratum of the lake, every two months from July 2011 to June 2012. Prepared soft tissues of the bivalves were digested by wet chemical method and subjected to multi-element analysis using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Nineteen metallic elements were analysed in the soft tissues of the bivalves, with some of the metals occurring below detectable limits. There was significantly variation (P < 0.02) in the concentrations of the 19 metals in the three species. Although A. implicata had the highest total concentrations of the metals, the difference did not differ statistically (P > 0.05) from the other two species. Chemically, the transition metals were higher in number of elements and concentrations with the metalloids having the least concentrations. Six of the metals from the bivalves (Mn, As, Cr, Fe, Co and Zn) are heavy metals. The concentrations of Mn, K, As, Fe, and Ba varied in the bivalves. High concentrations of Mn, K and Zn have been observed in this study. Highly significant positive and negative interactions were observed among the heavy metals. The significant variation in the concentrations of the metals shows that the different metals accumulate differently in the soft tissues of the bivalves. The high tolerance of metal load shown by these molluscs could be indicative of an adaptation to metal pollution. Such high concentrations of the heavy metals could be physiologically detrimental and impair their ecological roles in the Lake ecosystem. This study has shown that the bivalves showed similarity in the type of metals they accumulate and therefore could be used as reliable bio-indicators of metal pollution in the Lake and could serve as routes by which these metals could get to higher trophic levels of the food chain.
Keywords: Bivalves, Kubanni Lake, Metals, Soft tissues, Zaria.
 J. F. Morton. Molluscs. (Ed) (Hutchinson University Library, London, 1968). 54-71.
 P. Parnosmarti. El aprovechamieto de caracol engranjas avicolas. Anales de Econ Pecuaria, li. 1952. 25-50.
 A. Stanczykowska. Ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (Pall.) (Bivalvia) in lakes. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol., 24(4), 1977, 461-530.
 R. J. Brown, R, J. Freshwater molluscs survive fish gut passage. Arctic, 60(2), 2007, 124-128.
 Natural Resources Conservation Service. Native freshwater mussels. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet Number 46, NRCS-2007.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||An Assessment of Urban Heat Island in Akure Using Geospatial Techniques|
|Authors||:||Aderoju Olaide M., Samakinwa E. Kayode, Ibrahim dris|
Abstract: Urban Heat Island is a phenomenon in which the temperature of an urban area is several degrees higher than its immediate sub-urban area. This paper was aimed at using satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information system (GIS) to investigate the urban heat Island in Akure. The study employed the Radiative Transfer Method in estimating Land Surface Temperature (LST) using Landsat ETM+ acquired on the 3rd January, 2002 with a spatial resolution of 30m which is sufficient for measurement of some important environmental parameters. The result of this study showed that the effect of Urban Heat Island (UHI) is not always at the center of the city but sometime in the outskirt where a lot of developmental activities were going on toward the direction of expansion of Akure. It was shown that the most extensive Urban Heat Island (UHI) was distributed in the central part of the Central Business District, comprising of the popular market (Oja-Oba), high court road and Alagbaka government area.
Key Words; Urban Heat Island (UHI), Remote sensing (RS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalize Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI), Land Use (LU), Land Cover (LC).
. Balogun A.A, Balogun I.A, Adefisan A.E, Abatan A.A (2009). Observed characteristics of the urban heat island during the harmattan and monsoon in Akure, Nigeria. Eight Conferences on the Urban Environment. AMS 89th Annual Meeting, 11 – 15 January, 2009, Phoenix, AZ. Paper JP4.6.
. Changnon, S.A. (1992), Inadvertent weather modification in urban areas: lessons for global climate change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol.73, Pp621-627.
. Cohen, J.E. (1995), How many people can the Earth Support? W.W. Norton & Co., New York.
. Gallo, K.P., McNab, A.L., Karl, T.R., Brown, J.F., Hood, J.J. and Tarpley, J.D., 1993, the use of a vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 14: 2223-2230.
. Ifatimehin, O. O. (2007).An Assessment of Urban Heat Island of Lokoja Town and Surroundings Using Landsat ETM data.
. Ifeoluwa A. Balogun, Ahmed A. Balogun, and Zachariah D. Adeyewa (2009), A note on the effect of urbanization on air temperature and humidity of Akure, Nigeria.
. Landsberg, H.E. (1981), the urban Climate. Academic Press, New York, Pp 6
. Markham, B.L and Barker, J.K (1985) Spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT thematic Mapper sensors, International Journal of remote Sensing, Vol.6, pg. 697 -716
. Nowak, D.J; Crane, D.E; Stevens, J.C and Ibarra, M. (2002), Brooklyn's Urban Forest.
. Technical Report, US Department of Agriculture and forest service, pp 45
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Convective drying kinetics of prickly pear seeds|
|Authors||:||S.Motri, A.Touil , L. Hassini, E. Bettaieb, F.Zagrouba|
Abstract: THE objective of this study was to investigate the drying kinetics of prickly pear seeds. Seeds were dried using a pilot scale convective dryer. Experiments were performed at air temperature of 45 and 70°C and at two relative humidity of 15 and 35% and air velocity of 1 and 2 m/s. The experimental drying data were fitted to different theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. According to the results obtained, it was verified that the constant drying rate period was not detected in these drying experiments. The increase in the temperature and air velocity of drying air, increases the drying rate of seeds. The statistical parameters (correlation coefficients and standard errors) show that the Verna model was found to satisfactorily describe the air-drying curves of seeds. The characteristic drying curves of seeds was determined empirically by using the corresponding curve drying equations.
Keywords: Prickly pear seeds, Convective drying, Kinetics, mathematical model, drying air-conditions.
. Tlili, N., Munné-Bosch, S., Nasri, N., Saadaoui, E., Khaldi, A., & Triki, S. (2009). Fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids from seeds of
Tunisian caper. J. Food Lipids, 16, 452-464.
. Omode, A.A., Fatoki, O.S., & Olaogun, K.A. (1995). Physicochemical properties of some underexploited and nonconventional oil seeds. J.Agric.Food Chem, 43, 2850-2853.
. Barbera, G. and Inglese, P. (1993). La coltura del Ficodindia. Edagricole, Calderini,Bologna, pp 189.
. Weiss, J., Nerd, A., & Mizrahi, J. (1993). Vegetative parthenocarpy in the cactus pear Opuntia ficus indica (L) Mill. Ann.Bot., 72, 521- 526.
. Nicoleti, J.F., Telis-Romero, J., & Telis, V.R.N. (2001). Air-drying of fresh and osmotically pre-treated pineapple slices : fixed air
temperature versus fixed temperature drying kinetics. Drying technology, 19, 2175-2191.
. Lertworasiriku, S and Tipuwan, Y. (2008). Moisture content and water activity prediction of semi-finished cassava crackers from drying process with artificial neural network. Journal of food engineering, 84, 65-74.
. Lahsasni, S., Kouhila, M., Mahrouz, M., Idlimam, A & Jamali, A. (2004). Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modelling
of prickly pear peel (opuntia ficus indica). Energy, 29: 211-224.
. Boudhrioua, N., Kouhila, M., & Kechaou, N. (2007). Experimental and mathematical investigations of convective solar drying of four vareties of olive leaves. Food and bioproduct processing.
. Touil, A., Chemkhi, S., & Zagrouba, F. (2010). Modeling of the drying kinetics of opuntia ficus indica fruits and cladodes. International journal of food engineering.
. Van Meel, D.A. (1958). Adiabatic convection batch drying with recirculation of air. Chem Eng Sci, 9, 36–44.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Sorption of copper, lead and zinc on bentonite sediment material|
|Authors||:||Ibrahim. O. M. Matoug|
Abstract: The retention studies of Cu, Pb and Zn on bentonite materials samples, in the laboratory to understanding metal adsorption between solution phase and solid phase of the suspended materials. The metals adsorption shows different adsorption responses between these materials. In the bentonite case the most of heavy metal Cu, Pb and Zn concentration was measured in the solid phase, which consequence a high Kd value.
 Aurada, K.D.1983.Physiographic and anthropogenic controls of global and regional ionic runoff, in webb, b.w Dissolved loads of rivers and surface Water Quantity Quality Relationship .Hamburg, IAHS publ.141,31-39.
 Boenigk. J, Wiedlroither. A, Pfandl. K.2005.Heavy metal toxicity and bioavailability of dissolved nutrients to a bacterivorous flagellate are linked to suspended particle physical properties .Aquatic Toxicology71,249-259.
 Bohan.H, McNeal .b, O'Connor.G, 2001.Soil Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons.
 Bradley. S. B, Lewin.J.1982.Transport of heavy metals on suspended sediments under high flow conditions in a mineralized Region of Wales.
 Covelo.E.F, Vega.F.A, Andrade.M.I, 2007.Competitive sorption and desorption of heavy metals by individual soil components. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 140,308-315.
 Dai, M.H., J, M. Martin.1995.First data on trace metal level and behaviour in two major Arctic river –estuarine systems (Ob and Yennisey) and in the adjacent Kara Sea, Russia.Earth Plant.Sci.Lett.131, 127-141.
 Droppo.I.G, Krishnappan.B.G, Rao.S.S, Ongley.E. 1992,.Investigation of a Sequential Filtration Technique for Particle Fractionation. Environmental Sciences &Technology. 29,2,1995.
 Farrah.H, Hatton.D, Pickering.W.F.1980, The affinity of metal ions for clay surfaces.Chemical Geology, 28, 55-68.
 Farrah.H, Pickering .W.F.1976.Influence of clay solute interactions on aqueous heavy metal ion levels.Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 8,189-197.
 Farrah.H, Pickering. W.F, 1977, Extraction of heavy metals ions sorbed on clays. Water,Air and Soil Pollution,9,491-498.
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Abstract: The physicochemical analysis, inorganic ion concentrations, some selected enzyme activities and metal concentrations of polluted soils in locations within Mgbunjuku Diobu Port Harcourt, Nigeria were determined. The soil temperature (oc) ranged from (26.60-27.20) while the pH values ranged from (5.8-6.8). The cation exchange capacities and exchangeable acidities have ranges of 4.0-10.40 Mkg-1 and 0.10-0.74Mkg-1 respectively which showed significant difference ( 0.05) from the controls. The soil anions,( nitrate, sulphate, chloride) showed significantly higher values of 5.60%-28.20%, 14.09%-5.85% and 2.49-1.07% respectively when compared to their control values. The soil phosphate showed significantly (p<0.05) lower values of 45.08-57.87% compared to controls (53.94-61.80%). Similarly soil enzymes activities of dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatases were significantly lower than the control values while lipase activity was significantly higher (p< 0.05) than the control. Soil metal concentrations were also significantly higher (p< 0.05) in polluted than the unpolluted soils (controls) except for Ca and Mg. This study therefore showed that the dumping of waste petroleum products affects the soil nutrients, destroys the soil ecosystem and may have adverse effects on plant growth.
Key Words: Waste petroleum, dumpsites, anions, cations, enzyme activities
 A.G.Ryder ,P. Iwanski and L. Montanari L. Fluorescence emission from petroleum; a valuable information source for petroleum analysis in-house. Journal for Entecnologic 2: 2004,9-14
 H. Kobayashi, and B.E Rittman, B .Microbial removal of hazardous organic compounds; Enviorn. Sci. Technol. 19(3), 1982, 470-481A.
 G.W. Pettibone, and J.I. Cooney, "Toxicity of methyltins to microbial populations in estuarine sediments", J. Indust, Microbiol. 2: 1988, 373-378.
 Z. Daniel . Fundamentals of soil exchange acidicity. Soil Bro.sci.17, 2008,79-80.
 N.O.Eugene,I.O. Stanley, and M.N. Nwubani. Inorganic ion levels of soils and streams in some areas of Ogoni land, Nigeria as affected by crude oil spillage; J, Appl. Sci. Environ. manage. 4, 2002,!91-203.
 R.G. Bates. Electronic pH Determination. 3ohn Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.1954.
 J.Dewis, and F. Freitas. Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. Soil Bulletin 10 FAO, Rome. l-275. 1970.
 A. Thalman Zur methodic dev' Bestimmung der. Dehydrogenase activities in Boden mittels triphenyltetra Zolium chloride (TTC) land Wirtsch Forsch 21, 1968, 249-258.
 J.A. Baross, and R.Y. Morita. Microbial life at low temperature; Ecological Aspects. In: DJ Kushner (ed) Microbial life in extreme Environments, Academic Press New York. Pp. 9-71.1978.
 S.W.Buol, R.S Southard, R.C. Graham and P.A. MC Daniel. Soil Genesis and classification. 5th edition, La State Press. Pp 494-502. 2002.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Incidence and Public Health Significance of Yersinia enterocolitica in Enugu Urban-Enugu State,Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Mbah Modesta Ifeoma|
Abstract: studies were carried out on the incidence and public health significance of Yersinia enterocolitica in animals in Enugu Urban- Enugu State A total of 106 samples, comprising 50 chickens and 33 goats from Artisan market and 23 pigs from New market,all in Enugu urban, were examined for the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica .Cold enrichment in a phosphate buffered saline, culture and biochemical tests were used as the diagnostic laboratory tests. This includes incubating the swabbed sample in freshly prepared 0.5% KOH in 0.5% NaCl (pH 7.6) at 4°C for 3 weeks followed by culturing on nutrient agar at 37°C for 24h.A total of 5 Yersinia enterocolitica were obtained- two were found in goats ,one was found in chicken and 2 were found in pigs. Prevalence rates of 6.O6%, 8.7% and 2% were found in goats, pigs and chickens, respectively .The prevalence rate of the different animals sampled combined was 4.72%.This confirmed that pigs had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica among the animals used for the study. Also the public health significance and recommendations to be followed in the processing and handling of animals especially their chitterlings were discussed.
Key words: Prevalence rate, public health significance, cold enrichment, Yersinia enterocolitica biochemical tests.
. Abdel-Haq N. M, Asmar B. I, Abuhammour W.M, Brown W.J. (2000). Yerisinia Enterocolitica Infection in Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 19(10):954-958.
. American Academy of Pediatrics (2006). Summasries of Infectious Diseases: Yerisinia Pseudotuberculosis Infections. Retrievedfrom, http://aapredbook.aapublications.or/cgi/content/full/2006/1/3.151
. Bhaduri, S. J. Wesley, I. V. and Bush, E. (2005). Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Strains in Pigs in the United State. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11):117-7121.
. Brooks D.C, Gregory M. J., Mark H.J. (2005). Yerisinia Enterocolitica. Retrieved from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2434.htm.
. Cheesbrough, M. (1984). Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press published by Tropical Health Technology, pp 58-69, 274.
. Daniel, R. B. (2006). Yerisinia Enterocolitica Infection. Retrieved from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2465.htm
. De Boer E, Seldan W.M. and Oosteron, J. (2002). Characterization of Yerisinia Enterocolitica and related Species isolated from Foods and Porcine tonsils in the Netherlands. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 3 (4): 217-224.
. Escudero, M. E. Velaquez, L. and De Guzman, A. M. S (1996). Yersinia enterocolitica and related species isolated from Animals. Journal of Food Microbiology, 13 (3):210-214.
. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M. and Korkeala, H. (2003), Low occurrence of Pathogeric Yerisinia Enterocolitica in Clinical Food and Environmental Samples: a Methodological Problem. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 16(2 ):220-229.
. Jackson, V. Blair, I.S Mcdowell, D. A, Kennedy, J. and Bolton, D. J. (2005). Incidence of Significant Food borne Pathogens in Domestic Refrigerators. Journal of Food Control, 18(4 ) 346-351.
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Abstract: An assessment of the groundwater quality of well and bore holes was carried out in Sagamu Town, Ogun State. Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, a semi-urban settlement, southwest Nigeria and falls under the rain forest agro-ecological zone. The study was aimed at examining the various sources of groundwater, the potential pollutants in the groundwater and the quality of the groundwater as it relates to public health. The study identified two sources of groundwater supply namely, boreholes and wells. Groundwater samples (12) were taken from boreholes and wells and subjected to physical, chemical and biological analysis. The results were compared with WHO standards. The results from the laboratory analysis revealed evidences of pollution from both chemical and biological sources. These were evident from high levels of nitrite (4.46 to 7.08 mg/l), lead (0.004 to 0.026 mg/l), copper (0.011 to 0.098 mg/l), nickel (0.009 to 0.042 mg/l) and iron (0.089 to 3.461), and the presence of bacteria, coliforms and fungi. It was further established that the boreholes and wells were more polluted in areas nearer farms and sanitation units than the areas further away from them. Improper sanitation management and improper education for farmers on farming skills could be the major problem for groundwater quality of the study areas. Also, relevant agencies should make continuous effort to control, regulate and educate the people and those using the water on indiscriminate waste disposal from laundry, domestic and agriculture within the study area.
Keywords: groundwater, pollutant, bacteria, boreholes, wells.
. Abdulaziz, M. (2003): Spatial variation in water quality in Nguru Urban. Unpublished MSc Project. University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
. Adediji, A. and Ajibade L. T. (2005): Quality of well water in Ede area, southwest Nigeria. J. Hum. Ecology, 17(3), 223 -228.
. Adekunle, I. M., Arowolo, T. A., Ndahi, N. P., Bello, B. and Owolabi, D. A. (2007): Chemical characteristics of humic acids in relation to lead, copper and cadmium levels in contaminated soils of southwest Nigeria, Annals of Environmental Science, North Eastern University, Boston, Massachusetts USA, 1, 23-34.
. Adeniji, F. A. and John, V. L. (1989): Sources, Availability and Safety of water. Proceedings of International Seminar of Water Resources in the Lake Chad Basin. University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
. Akan, J.C. Abdulrahman, F.I. Dimari G.A. and Ogugbuaja, V.O. (2008). Physicochemical Determination of Pollutants in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples along the Jakara Wastewater Channelin Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 23 (1); 122-133.
. Akujieze C. N., Coker, S. J. and Oteze, G. E. (2003): Groundwater in Nigeria – a millennium experience – distribution, practice, problems and solutions. Hydrogeology Journal, 1, 259 -274.
. Alagbe, S. A. (2002): Groundwater resources of river Kan Gimi Baisn, north-central, Nigeria. Environmental Geology, 42, 404 - 413.
. APHA. (2005). Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
. Aremu, D. A., Olawuyi, J. F., Meshitsuka, S., Sridhar, M. K. and Oluwande, P. A. (2002): Heavy metal analysis of groundwater from Warri, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 261-267.
. Babaji, I. and Ndubusi, O.L. (1988): Self reliance in community water supply. Proceedings of Seminar on Engineering for community Development, Nigerian Society for Engineers. Maiduguri.
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Abstract: Water is essential and vital to all human activities. Despite its importance, it is the most poorly managed resources in the world. In most towns in Ogun State, South West, Nigeria, access to clean and portable water is a challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The research aims at accessing the level of influence of human activities on the physical and chemical properties of Iju River, Iju town in Ogun State, South West Nigeria. Water samples were collected from Point 1, 2 and 3 (down-stream, mid-stream and up-stream respectively) from Iju river and the following parameter were determined: pH ,electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solid (TSS), total solid (TS), total acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, iron, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Levels of EC, TS, and BOD at the mid-stream and the iron level at down-stream, mid-stream and up-stream are higher than WHO standards.The high concentration of iron in the entire samples suggests that the river water used for irrigation of vegetable and high level of BOD makes the water unsuitable for aquatic life and human consumption.Relevant agencies should make continuous effort to control, regulate and educate the people and those using the water on indiscriminate waste disposal from laundry, domestic and agriculture within the study area.
Keyword: River, pollution, biological oxygen demand, laundry.
. Morrison, G. O., Fatoki, O.S and Ekberg, A. (2001) Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek sewage treatment plant on the keiskamma river. Water. SA., 27: 475-480.
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. Anikwe, M.A.N. and Nwobodo, K.C.A. (2006). Long term effect of municipal waste disposal on soil properties and productivity of sites used for urban agriculture in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Bioresources Technol. 83, 241-251.
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Abstract: This research was aimed at modification of Bacillus and Psuedomonas species isolated from dye contaminated soil with physical and chemical mutagens for improved dye biodecolourization. Textile effluent and dye contaminated soil were collected from a textile industry located at Challawa industrial area Kano, Nigeria. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus firmus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas flourescens were isolated and selected based on their biodegradation potentials of textile effluents. The Bacillus and Pseudomonas species were modified with Ultra-violet rays at 254nm and Nitrous acid at different time interval (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30mins). Ultra-Violet (UV) light irradiated strains showed percentage survival that ranged from 3.04% Bacillus cereus (B8UV30) to 56.15% Pseudomonas fluorescens (P23UV5). The effect of nitrous acid (NHO22.0M) treatment on survival after exposure by the parent strains (B6WS, B8WS, P2WS and P23WS) at different time interval (10,15,20,25,30mins) showed percentage survival ranging from 10.37% Pseudomonas fluorescens (P23NA10) to 58.76% Bacillus cereus (B8NA10). The modified strains (B8UV30) had higher textile effluent decolourization potentials of 60.30±0.04 than the parent strain (B8WS) which showed 42.56±0.13% biodecolourization activities. Thus, the modified strains could be employed in the biodecolourization of textile effluents to meet acceptable levels prior to discharge of textile effluents into the receiving environment.
Keywords: UV-irradiation, nitrous acid, textile effluent, biodecolourization, Pseudomonas,Bacillus.
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Abstract: The present study was conducted to study the effect of graded doses of Sodium fluoride on the microanatomy of lungs of Albino rats over different periods of time. Sixty male adult albino rats taken from the animal house of Govt. medical College Srinagar were divided randomly into four groups of 15 animals each. Animals of the first three groups were given fluorinated water in various concentrations to drink and fourth group served as the control group getting plain tap water to drink. Animals from each group were sacrificed and examined after 30, 60, and 90 days of therapy and gross and microscopic changes recorded. It was observed that fluorides induce dose and duration dependent microscopic changes in lung tissue ranging from mild edema to gross necrosis.
Key Words: Sodium Fluoride, Edema, Necrosis, Fluorosis, Fatty infiltration
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Lead acetate induced oxidative stress and its possible reversal by Tribulus terrestris root extract in testes of Swiss albino mice|
|Authors||:||Vishavjeet Khairwal, Madhu Kumar|
Abstract: Lead is highly toxic naturally occurring element that affects numerous organ systems in humans. Present study was designed to investigate the preventive role of T. terrestris root extract and vitamin C against lead acetate induced testicular toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Animals exposed to lead acetate at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.wt. subcutaneously showed significant decrease in protein, sialic acid, ascorbic acid, total thiols and ATPase activity but a significant increase was observed in cholesterol level. These modulatory effects of lead acetate were prevented by concurrent daily administration of T. terrestris root extract. The antioxidant and chemoprotective activity of T. terrestris root extract was compared with vitamin C.
Key Words: Biochemical assays, Lead acetate, Testes, Tribulus terrestris, Vitamin C.
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Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze some heavy and trace metal contents of selected edible vegetables commonly sold in four local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State, Nigeria, with a view to unearth their toxicological implications on the populace. The vegetables sampled are Spinacia oleracea (spinach), Lactuca sati (lettuce), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Daucus car (carrot) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage), while the metals analysed are Cd, Pb, Fe, Cr and Mn. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration of the various metals and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests in a one-way analysis of variance was used to compare variations in metal concentrations. Cd and Pb were not detected in all the vegetables sampled from Bassa LGA, but were detected in vegetables of Jos-North, Jos-South and Barkin Ladi LGAs. Cd and Pb concentrations in most samples from Jos-North, Jos-South and Barkin Ladi LGAs were above the WHO maximum permissible limits for vegetables. Cr concentrations in all the vegetables from all the LGAs were far above the WHO maximum permissible limit in the order: Jos-South > Jos-North > Barkin Ladi > Bassa. Fe concentration in most vegetables from all the LGAs is above the WHO maximum permissible limit in the orders: Jos-North – Lettuce > Spinach > cucumber > carrot > cabbage; Jos-South – Lettuce > Spinach > cabbage > carrot > cucumber; Barkin Ladi – Lettuce > cucumber > Spinach > carrot > cabbage; Bassa – Letuce > carrot > spinach > cabbage > cucumber. Mn order of concentrations in the vegetables is: Jos-north – spinach > Lettuce > carrot > cucumber > cabbage; Jos-South – spinach > lettuce > cabbage > carrot > cucumber; Barkin Ladi – Lettuce > cucumber > Spinach > carrot > cabbage; Bassa – Lettuce > spinach > cabbage > carrot > cucumber. The order of lead concentrations in the vegetables are: Jos-North – cabbage > spinach > carrot > lettuce > cucumber; Jos-South – Lettuce > cucumber > carrot > cabbage > spinach; Barkin Ladi – Lettuce > spinach > cucumber > carrot > cabbage. The results indicate that vegetables from Jos-North, Jos-South and Barkin Ladi are contaminated with the metals sampled, while lettuce and spinach are very good bioaccumulators of these metals.
Keywords: Comparative, Heavy metals, Trace Metals, Vegetables, contamination, bioaccumulation
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