Version-1 (Sep–Oct 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Studies on Fixed and Fluidized Bed Ion Exchange Column to Treat Wastewater|
|Authors||:||Majid Farajpourlar, S. Ram Mohan Rao, V. V. Basava Rao|
Abstract: A continuous fixed and fluidized bed study was carried out by using strong-base anion- exchange resin for removal of nitrate from water. The effect of operating parameters, such as flow rate, initial concentration and bed high was studied. Data confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial concentration and bed high. Breakthrough experiments were carried out to compare breakthrough curves between packed and fluidized beds. Thomas model was applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the packed and fluidized bed columns.
Key words: nitrate removal; fixed bed; fluidized bed; ion exchange
 KavitaBatheja, A.K. Sinha And Gita Seth, Asian J. Exp.Sci., 23(1),2009 ; 61-66.
 LucijiaFoglar, Laszlo Sipos, NenadBolf,World J MicrobiolBiotechnol 23:2007,1595- 1603
 M.Matosic, Mijatovic, and E. Hodzic, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 14 (4), 2000, 141-146
 Robert Kunin "Ion Exchange Resin", Rohm and hass company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1985.
 Trgo Marina, MedvidovicNediljkaVukojevic and PericJelena, indian journal of chemical technology 18, 2011,123-131.
 Yuh-Shan Ho, Polish Journal Of Environmental Studies 15(1), 2006, 81-86.
 K. Vasanth Kumar, K.Porkodi, F.Rocha, Journal Of Hazardous Materials 150 2008, 158-165.  Andrew D. Eaton, Lenore S. Clesceri, Arnold E. Greenberg, M. A. H. Franson. Standard Methods For The Examination Of Water And WastWater , American Public Health.Association (APHA), American Water Works Association(AWWA) & Water Environment Federation (WEF), 2005.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Potential Challenges of Climate Change to the Nigerian Economy|
|Authors||:||Usman Y. Dutse, Dije B. Ibrahim|
Abstract: Nigeria is likely to be one of the most negatively impacted countries in the world as a result of climate change. Nigeria is plagued with many ecological problems of varying magnitude. Whilst the people living in the southern part of the country are being ravaged by flood and gully erosion, their counterparts in the north are contending with the menace of desertification, deforestation and drought, among others. These environmental challenges have direct and indirect effects on the social and economic activities of the societies. The paper review the potential impact of the challenges of climate change on the Nigerian economy by identifying the impact according to sectors and the potential impacts on the future GDP of Nigeria. Secondary data were used and content analysis was adopted.
. Adejuwon, J. (2006) Food Security, Climate Variability and Climate Change in Sub Saharan West Africa. A Final Report Submitted to Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC). Project No. AF 23. Published by The International START Secretariat,Washington, DC, USA.
. Boko, M., I. Niang, A., Nyong, C., Vogel, A., Githeko, M., Medany, B., Osman Elasha, R., Tabo and P. Yanda (2007) Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Africa. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
. CGIAR(2008). Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research: The Challenge of Climate Change; www.Cgiar.Org/4-6
. DFID (2009)., Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria's Economy. Final Report
. Emeka, E. (2010) Nigerian Ecological Fund Issues. Perspective, word press.com
. Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). (1997). Drought Management in Nigeria; What can people do to minimize its impact? Abuja: Federal Ministry of Environment
. Gwary D, M (2007). Climate Change, Food Security and Nigerian Agriculture. A Report submitted to Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja and UNDP Abuja.
. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)(2007b). Climate Change Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Reports of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
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Abstract: Soil fertility evaluation of an area or region is an important aspect in context of sustainable agricultural production. The macro and micro nutrients govern the fertility of the soil and control the yields of crops. Microbial population indicates the soil health with positive correlation with available nutrients. Khammam region was selected for the present study.Ten represented villages were chosen and two soil samples for two variants (Bt and NBt) were collected from each village. All the 20 available samples were analysed for N,P,K,S,B,Zn and microbial count. Results revealed that soil samples were found slightly alkaline, medium Organic carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, Boron and Zinc but low in Nitrogen. The two variants are differing in Nutrient index values and microbial count.
Key Words: Macronutrients, Microbial count, Nutrient index, Bt cotton, Soil health.
 Suzanne Vissera1 and Dennis Parkinsona: 30 October 2009 American Journal of Alternative Agriculture / Volume 7 / Special Issue 1-2 / June 1992, pp 33-37
 Kate M. Scow and Matthew R. Wern :soil ecology chapter 5 ,pp 67-78.
 R. P. Singh and S. K. Mishra (2012 ) Available Macro nutrients(N, P, K and S) in the Soils Of Chiraigon Block Of District Varanasi (U.P.) In Relation to Soil Characteristics. Indian J.Sci.Res.3(1) : 97-100, 2012
 Bibhuti B. Das and M.S. DkharRhizosphere Microbial Populations and Physico Chemical Properties as Affected by Organic and Inorganic Farming Practices. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 10 (2): 140-150, 2011
. Williamson E (1992) Environmental risks from the release of geneticallymodified organisms (GMOS)—the need for molecular ecology.MolEcol 1:3–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1992.tb00149.
 Hails RS (2000) Genetically modified plants-the debate continues.TrendsEcolEvol 15:14–18. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01751-7
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Abstract: The world's population is increasing while levels of capture fisheries remain roughly stable with limited potential of increase. The only choice to meet the world's increasing demand of fish is by farming them. Aquaculture is a developing industry and a large proportion of the industry is using aquaculture technology. A consequence of high-density aquaculture is the increased probability to exposure to elevated concentrations of nitrogenous wastes; the principal end product of amino acids metabolism that tends to accumulate and negatively affect the fish. Yet, the effects of ammonia on economically important rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) are not well documented. The present study aims to investigated the hypothesis that chronic exposure of fish to increased aqueous ammonia would affect certain parameters including, the structural liver integrity. Fish were treated with total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N) using 0- 12 mg/L. Results obtained indicated that fish reared in TAN- 0 mg/ L had 100% survival and 50% weight increase in 50 days. All fish at TAN- 2 and 4 mg/ L (low dose) died, whilst fish in 6 - 12 mg/ L TA-N survived and grew albeit less than in treatment 0 mg/ L. After 20 days of the chronic exposure, fish was randomly taken from each tank in treatments 0, 2 and 10 mg/ L TA-N and their liver were fixed and stained by routine methods and examined using light and electron microscopy. Results indicated that high dose ammonia (TAN -10) is deleterious to marbled rabbitfish since histologically liver exhibited a disrupted architecture, necrosis, blood congestion and sever ultrastructural alterations in comparison to low dose exposed to TA-N -2 and those exposed to TA-N -0. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were highly accumulated in hepatocytes as a result of exposure to TA-N, this could be due to induced imbalance between fat production and utilization and disturbance in lipid metabolism. Results obtained suggests chronic structural and functional damage, as a result of exposure to ammonia. It is recommended that ammonia levels be measured regularly during production of rabbitfish and be maintained below the threshold concentration used in this study to maximize production.
Keywords: Aqueous ammonia, Histology, Liver, Siganus rivulatus, Ultrastructure
 E. Azzurro, and F. Andaloro, A new settled population of the Lessepsian migrant Siganus luridus (Pisces: Siganidae) in Linosa Island, Sicily Strait. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.,84, 2004, 819–821.
 D. Stephanou, and G. Georgio, Recent experience on the culture of rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, in Cyprus. Seminar on Mediterranean Marine Aquaculture Finfish Diversification. Organized by CIHEAM and FAO, 1999. Zaragoza, Spain, 24-27 May 1990.
 M. Bilecenoglu, and M. Kaya, Growth of marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus. Forsskal, 1775 (Teleostei: Siganidae) introduced to Antalya Bay, eastern Mediterranean Sea (Turkey). Fisheries Res., 54, 2002. 279-285.
4] F.A. Bukhari, The potential contributions of some aquaculture practices to the Arabian fisheries industry utilizing marine waters. Egypt. J.Aquat. Res., 31, special issue,2005, 333-340.
 A. Barakat, R . Roumieh, N.E. Abdelmeguid, J. Ghanawi, and P. Saoud, Feed regimen affect growth, condition index, proximate analysis and myocyte ultrastructure of juvenile spinefoot rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus Aquaculture Nutrition, 17, 2011, e773- e780
 I.P. Saoud, S. Kreydiyyeh, A. Chalfoun, and M.Fakih, Influence of salinity on survival, growth, plasma osmolality and gill Na+- K+-ATPase activity in the rabittfish Siganus rivulatus. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 348, 2007,183-190.
] I.P. Saoud, C.Mohanna, and J.Ghanawi, Effects of temperature on survival and growth of juvenile spinefoot rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus). Aquaculture Research 39, 2008, 491–497.
 I.P. Saoud, Rabbitfish, a herbivorous marine fish. International Aquafeed, 12, 2009, 21.
 A.C.K. Benli and G. Kὂksal The acute toxicity of ammonia on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae and fingerlings. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29, 2005, 339–344.
 F.B. Eddy, Ammonia in estuaries and effects on fish. J. Fish. Biol. 67, 2005, 1495-1513.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Implications of Environmental Considerations for Floods in Pakistan|
|Authors||:||Razia Sharif, Muhammad Naseem Baig, Jawed Iqbal, Arshad Ali|
Abstract: World is making significant progress in different fields meanwhile facing plethora of natural and manmade disasters. Disasters provide opportunity in positive realm meanwhile disasters setback advances. Developing countries are more prone to disasters because of more physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Pakistan is facing different natural and man-made disasters since few decades. World major disasters comprises of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods as well. Lesson learnt from these major disasters clearly depicts that many factors like lack of institutional framework, preparedness plan and other shortcomings leads to disaster which have adverse impact on society. Past profile of major disasters also indicated that these disasters have adverse impact on country economic conditions like fiscal deficit affected, GDP falls so it is clear that environmental issues has direct linkage with economic vulnerability. Disasters like floods not only affect people but environment too. The relationship between environment and disaster is interdependent, Manmade hostile environmental activities like pollution, deforestation, water erosion, salinity, industrial wastes leads to disastrous conditions and disaster has adverse impact on environment like environmental degradation, diseases outbreak, poor sanitation conditions and ecological disturbance. The purpose of this study is to identify recurrence interval of floods in Pakistan with subsequent environmental problems leads to degradation and also resilience of environmental considerations in response to floods in Pakistan.
Keywords: Environmental degradation, resilience, ecological disturbance
 "Unnatural Disasters," Financial Times, August 4, 2010. Statistics for the flood illustrate that this is Pakistan's largest disaster in terms of the number of people affected in the last 60 years:http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/
 "Floods in Pakistan Carry the Seeds of Upheaval," New York Times, September 6, 2010.
 IPCC, "Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change," Chapter 10, Global Climate Predictions, 2007.
 Carlotta Gall, "Pakistan flood sets back years of gains on infrastructure," New York Times, August 26, 2010; OCHA Situation Aug 27 Report. Also, more than 6,000 schools are being used as emergency shelters.
 Nathanial Gronewold, "After the Pakistan Deluge, Blackouts Spread," New York Times. October 12, 2010.
 Energy Information Administration, "International Energy Statistics," U.S. Department of Energy. 2007.
 IPCC, "Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change," Chapter 10, Global Climate Predictions, 2007.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Assessment of groundwater quality in Karur block of Tamil Nadu using multivariate techniques: A case study|
|Authors||:||S. Krishnaraj, Sanjiv Kumar, K. P. Elango|
Abstract: In this case study, multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analyses were applied for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in the groundwater quality. These techniques were employed for the better interpretation of large complex water quality data set monitored in the four seasons from twenty five groundwater locations of Karur block, Tamil Nadu during the year 2012. The water samples were characterized for the physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, total hardness, calcium ions, magnesium ions, total dissolved solids, fluorides, chlorides and sulphates. The data obtained were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for simplifying its interpretation and to define the parameters responsible for the main variability in water quality variance. The results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contributed to water quality variations in the study area in all the seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped twenty five sampling stations into three clusters (i.e.) relatively less polluted (LP), moderately polluted (MP) and highly polluted (HP) sites based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. The water quality index (WQI) of these groundwater samples ranged from 47 to 107, 53 to 96 and 45 to 94 in post-monsoon, summer and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. This investigation revealed that the groundwater of the study area needs some degree of water treatment before consumption. Thus, this study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for effective groundwater quality management.
Key words: water quality index, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis.
 V. Simeonov, P. Simeonova, and R. Tsitouridou, Chemometric quality assessment of surface waters: two case studies, Chem. Eng. Ecol. 11, 2004, 449-469.
 S. Shrestha and F. Kazama, Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Fuji river basin, Japan, Environmental Modelling and Software, 22, 2007, 464-475.
 T.G. Kazi, M.B. Arain, M.K. Jamali, N. Jalbani, H.I. Afridi, R.A. Sarfraz, J.A. Baig, and A.Q. Shah, Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72, 2009, 301-309.
 L. Belkhiri, A. Boudoukha, L. Mouni, and T. Baouz, Multivariate statistical characterization of groundwater quality in Ain Azel plain, Algeria, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(8), 2010, 526-534.
 APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (American Water Works Association, Washington DC, 1985).
 G. Qian, G. Gabor and R.P. Gupta, Principal component selection by the criterian of the minimum mean difference of complexity, J. Multivariate Anal., 49(1),1994, 55- 75.
 B. Helena, R. Pardo, M. Vega, E. Barrdo, J.M. Fernandez, L. Fernandez, Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial aquifer ( Pisuerga river, spain) by principal component analysis., Water Res. 34, 2000, 807- 816.
 M.C. Hidalgo and J. Cruz- Sanjulian, Ground water composition, hydrochemical evolution and mass transfer in a regional detrital aquifer ( Baza Basin, southern spain), Appl. Geochem., 16 (7-8), 2001,745- 758.
 J.E. McKenna, An enhanced cluster analysis program with bootstrap significance testing for ecological community analysis, Environmental Modelling and Software, 18 (3), 2003, 205-220.
 M. Otto, Multivariate methods, in: R. Kellner, J.M. Mermet, M. Otto and H.M. Widmer (Ed.), Analytical Chemistry (Wiley/VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998) 916.
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Abstract: The potassium bromate and hydrocyanic acid contents in commonly consumed fourteen loaves of bread and four most popular wheat flour brands among the bakers in Karu local government of Nasarawa state, Nigeria were assessed for potassium bromate and hydrocyanic acid contents. Potassium bromate in bread samples analyzed ranged between 0.5μg/g to 8.4μg/g and 0.83μg/g to 1.42μg/g in wheat flour samples. The hydrocyanic acid contents of the bread and wheat flour samples analyzed ranged between 1.510 to 3.676 mg/1000g and 0.706 to 1.498 mg/1000g sample respectively. These results implied that all the loaves of bread and wheat flour brands analysed contained potassium bromate in high quantity above safe level for human consumption and various amount of hydrocyanic acid which however, will not lead to the lethal dose of 35 mg hydrocyanic acid per kg body weight but there is need for continuous surveillance and enforcement of the ban on the use of potassium bromate in baking industry in this study area by NAFDAC. Keywords: Bread, Hydrocyanic acid, Picric acid, Potassium bromate, Wheat
 B. Maziya-Dixon, I.O. Akinyele, E.B. Oguntona, S. Nokoe, R.A. Sanusi, E. Harris, Nigeria food consumption and nutritional survey 2001–2003. IITA, Ibadan, 2004, 67.
 Magomya A.M, G.G Yebpella, , U.U Udiba H.S Amos M.S Latayo(2013) Potassium Bromate and Heavy Metal Content of Selected Bread Samples Produced in Zaria, Nigeria International Journal of Science and Technology ,2 ( 2),2013 ,232-237
 M.O. Emeje, S.I. Ofoefule, A.C. Nnaji, A.U. Ofoefule and S.A.Brown (2010). Assessment of bread safety in Nigeria: Quantitative determination of potassium bromate and lead. African Journal of Food Science, 4(6), 2010, 394 - 397.
 M. Nakamura, T. Murakami, K.Himata ,S. Hosoya and Y.Yamada (2006). Effects of reducing agents and baking conditions on potassium bromate in bread. Cereal Foods World. (51), 2006, 69-75
 Atkins DP (1993) Potassium Bromate in Bread. Index to MAFF-UK Food surveillance Information sheets.
 Y. Watson, Material safety data sheet: potassium bromate ( Mallinckrodt baker Inc. New Jersey, 2000).
 B. Nambisan, Cyanogenesis in cassava. In WM Roca, AM Thro, eds, Proceedings of the First International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, Centro Internacional Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, 1993,424–427
 A.O. Onabolu., O.S. Oluwole and M. Bokanga, 2002. Loss of residual cyanogens in a cassava food during short-term storage. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr.,(53),2002, 343-349.
 O.S.A. Oluwole, A.O. Onabolu, I.A. Cotgreave, H. Rosling, A. Persson and H. Link, Incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy and its relationship to exposure to cyanide in a Nigerian community. J. Neurol. Neurosurgery Psychiatry (74), 2003, 1412-1416.
 K. Stephenson, R. Amthor, S. Mallowa, R. Nungo, B. Maziya-Dixon and S. Gichuki, 2010. Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria. Nutr. J., (26), 2010, 1-9.
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Abstract: Cyanogen contents of seven most consumed cassava based food products in Nasarawa state were evaluated using the alkaline picrate method. These products were subjected to different processing methods such as peeling, washing, grating, fermentation, drying/dewatering, milling/pulvering and frying. The analyses showed reduction in cyanogens contents ranging from 56.33% to 89.58% compare to raw cassava tubers from which they were all produced. These results also showed that cassava processing methods in which fermentation is involved in the multistep processing stages greatly reduced cyanogen contents of the cassava. However, these processing methods did not remove all the cyanogen from the cassava products but reduced it below 10 ppm, recommended by the World Health Organization as safe limit, suggesting that the cassava underwent proper processing to produce safe products. Consumption of these products will not lead to the lethal dose of 35 mg hydrocyanic acid per kg body weight reported by some authors, hence marketing and consumption of these products should be promoted and efforts made to improve the processing methods to further reduce the cyanogen contents of the products.
Keyword: Cassava, cyanogens, fermentation, hydrocyanic acid, picric acid,
 A. C. Allem, The origins and technology of cassava. In: R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Tres, and A. C Belloti, Cassava: biology, production and utilization. (CABI publishing, 2002): 1-16.
 C. Iglesias, J. Mayer, A.L. Ch´avez and F. Calle, F,Genetic potential and stability of carotene content in cassava roots. Euphytica , (94),1997,367–373.
 R.D. Cooke And E.N. Maduagwu, The effect of simple processing on the cyanide content of cassava chips. Journal of food technology (13) 1985, 299-366.
 Raw Materials Research and Development Council, RMRDC, Cassava Report on Survey of Agro Raw Materials in Nigeria-Raw Materials Research and Development Council (Maiden Edition), 2004. 1-2, 18-19.
 C.L. Asadu, A. Felix and I. Nweke, Soils of Arable Crop Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa: Focus on Cassava Growing Areas. Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA). Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Working Paper (18) 1999
 F.I. Nweke, B.O.Ugwu, A.G.O. Dixon, C.L.A. Asadu and O. Ajodo, Cassava Production in Nigeria: Afunction of Farmer Access to Markets and Improved Production and Processing Technologies. . IITA, Ibadan. COSCA working paper ( 20), 1999.
 E.A. Uyo, O.Udensi, V. Natui And I.Urua, Effect of different processing methods on cyanide content of garri from four cultivars of cassava. J. of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 5(3&4) 2007, 105-107.
 P. Nicholls, and T Soulimane, The Mixed Valence State of the Oxidase Binuclear Centre: How Thermus thermophilus Cytochrome ba3 Differs from Classical aa3 in the Aerobic Steady State and When Inhibited by Cyanide. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 1655(1-3), 2004, 381-387.
 J.H. Bradbury and D.W. Holloway, 1988. Chemical composition of tropical root crops from the south pacific: Significance for human nutrition. Canberra: Australian center of int. Agric. Res., 1988, 103-104.
 J.McMahon, W. White, R.T. Sayre, Cyanogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J Exp Bot,( 46), 1995,731–741
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Inhibitory effect of biosurfactant purified from probiotic yeast against biofilm producers|
|Authors||:||Jolly Mariam Johny|
Abstract: Extracellular surface active agents are produced by microorganisms by reutilizing the accumulated waste or by the assimilation of low cost carbon sources or other renewable resources. Isolation, identification, and screening of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to check for its ability to produce microbial surfactants was the primary angle in the present work. The second angle of the work was to study the inhibitory action of the purified biosurfactant against Candida and Bacillus biofilms or aggregates of microorganism that can adhere to inanimate objects, resulting in the spread of many infections.
Keywords: Microbial surfactants, Anti-adhesion, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biofilm producers
. Das P, Mukherjee S, Sen R: Antiadhesive action of a marine microbial surfactant. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2009, 71:183-186.
. Rodrigues, L., H. C. van der Mai, J. Teixeira, and R. Oliveira. Biosurfactant from Lactococcus lactis 53 inhibits microbial adhesion on silicone rubber. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., in press
. Zinjarde SS, Pant A. Emulsifier from a tropical marine yeast, yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. J Basic Microbiol 2002; 42:67‑73.
. Elving, G. J., H. C. van der Mei, R. van Weissenbruch, F. W. Albers, and H. J. Busscher. 2000. Effect of antifungal agents on indwelling voice prosthetic biofilms. Curr. Opin. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 8:165-168.
. Banat IM, Makkar IM, Cameotra SS. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000; 53:495‑508.
. Desai JD, Banat IN. Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1997; 61:47‑64.
. Vandana Singh. "Biosurfactant – Isolation, Production, Purification & Significance". International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2012.
. M Morikawa, Y Hirata and T Imanaka. A study on the structure-function relationship of lipopeptide biosurfactants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2000; 1488, 211-8.
. HS Kim, BD Yoon, DH Choung, HM Oh, T Katsuragi and Y Tani. Characterization of a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid produced from Candida sp. SY16. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 1999; 52, 713-21.
. Bodour, A. A., and R. M. Miller. 2004. Biosurfactant types, screening, methods, and applications. In: Bitton, G. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, first ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp. 750–770.
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Abstract: The mass of data on understanding health and the importance of physical activity has resulted in increased numbers of fitness center attendees and supplemental dietary intake or use of ergonenic aids in the past ten years. Malaysia, however, lacks data on the awareness and practices of ergogenic supplementation. Hence, this research was undertaken to investigate the pattern of ergogenic aid intake and to compare the blood lipid profiles of users and non users of ergogenic aids among regular fitness centre attendees in Malaysia. Three types of assessments were used: (i) a questionnaire consisting of two sections with categorical and numerical scales to assess practices and awareness; (ii) anthropometry, which included four major components, namely, body composition, cardio-respiratory and muscular endurance, and muscular flexibility assessments that provided data on the level of fitness; (iii) a biochemical assessment of blood lipid profiles (Total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and TG) using the CardioCheck Portable Analyzer. The present study found that fitness levels demonstrated no significant difference between users and non users of ergogenic aids (t =1.246, p = 0.216). However, blood lipid profiles showed significant differences between users and non users of ergogenic aids (t = -1.224, p = 0.022). Results also showed insignificant relationships (r) between ergogenic aid intake and blood lipid profiles as well as in levels of physical fitness.
Keywords: Ergogenic aids, fitness level, blood lipid profile
. Sizer F., Whitney E., Nutrition, Concepts and Controversies, Eleventh Edition (Thomson Wadsworth, 2006).
. IHRSA, the 'International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association' 2012. Top Health Club Trends - Health Clubs Respond to Strong Consumer Demand. Available from: http://www.ihrsa.org/media-center/2012/1/11/top-health-club-trends-for-2012.html.
. Harrison R.A., Holt P., Pattison D.J., Elton P.J., Are Those in Need Taking Dietary Supplements? Journal Nutritional, 2004, 91: 617-23.
. Silver M.D., Use Of Ergogenic Aids By Athletes, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Vol. 9, 2001, No 1.
. Anon: Anabolic- Androgenic Steroids: Incidence of Use and Health Implications. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Research Digest 2005, Series 5, No. 5.
. Morrison L.J., Gizis F., Shorter B., Prevalent use of dietary supplement users: demographics, product use, and medical system interaction. Journal of the International Society of Sports & Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 14(4): 2004, 481-92.
. William, M., The Use of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Sports: Is It an Ethical Issue? International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 4: , 1994, 120-131.
. Johnson W.A, Landry G.L., Nutritional Supplements: Fact vs. Fiction. Adolesc Med 9, 1998, 501-513.
. Sizer F., Whitney E., Nutrition, Concepts and Controversies, Eleventh Edition (Thomson Wadsworth, 2008).
. Stoedefalke K., Effects of Exercise Training on Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins in Children and Adolescents; A review article, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 2007, 313-318.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Heavy metal concentration and toxicity studies on rabbits exposed to Quarry Dust.|
|Authors||:||Ogbanshi M. E., Akubugwo E. I.|
Abstract: As part of a detailed study of the heavy metal concentration and the resultant toxicity of quarry dust to quarry workers, the biochemical and hematological changes in rabbit's serum from one to five months of quartz dust inhalation was investigated in Abakaliki quarry industry, Nigeria. The heavy metals present and their concentration in part per million (ppm) were Cadmium (0.06), Lead (0.43), Nickel (0.34), Iron (4740) and Zinc (4.6). A several fold increase in total iron binding capacity was elicited by the dust inhalation. Total white blood cell count was raised in the test group. Lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and monocyte count were also increased by the dust inhalation. Serum proteins such as globulin was elevated but not significant except at five months of exposure. Conversely, the hemoglobin count, neutrophils and packed cell volume decreased significantly in the exposed groups compared to the control from the first month of exposure and intensified as the exposure period increased. The observation shows that an immune reaction is taking place in exposed subjects, leading to a compromise in the immune system of the exposed subjects.
Keyword: Quarry dust, aplastic anemia, hematological parameters and heavy metals
. O Kaylyci , T. Besler, K. Kilnc ,B.E Seceral and Y. Saraclar. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (alpha tocopherol, beta carotene and ascorbic acid) in children with bronchial asthma. Journal of pediatrics 42. 2000, 17-21.
. E Hnizdo and V. Vallyathan. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological-. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60. 2003, 237-243.
. Lennetch Water Treatment and Air Purification . Water treatment, published by Lennetch, Rotterdamsewey, Netherlands [Online]. 2004. available at www.excelwater.com/thp/filters/water-purification.htm
. J.S Hawkes. Heavy metals. J. Chem. Educ 74(11). 1997, 13744
. Rune, Ragna, Hetland, J. Hans, B. Dahlman and N. Schwart. Rat lung inflammatory responses after in vivo and in vitro exposure to various stone particles. Inhalation Toxicology 13. 2001, 789-805.
. M.F Khan , F.N. Jaffery, S. Ali and Q. Rahman . Biochemical studies on the toxicity of slate mine dust. Environmental Health Perspective 51. 1993, 305-310.
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