Version-1 (July–August 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Development of Waste Polystyrene as a binder for emulsion paint formulation II: Effect of different types of Solvent|
|Authors||:||Osemeahon, S. A; Barminas, J. T; Jang, A. L.|
Abstract: In our continuous desire to find suitable methods of recycling waste, expanded polystyrene waste was converted into a paint binder using different solvents (such as gasoline, toluene, xylene, CCl4 and chloroform). Some properties of the binder developed were investigated. Properties like refractive index, density, viscosity, turbidity, melting point, elongation at break and moisture uptake was found to vary from one solvent to another. The binder developed with gasoline, toluene, xylene and chloroform were found to be soluble in water, while the binder developed with CCl4 was found to be insoluble in water. However, only binder developed with gasoline showed appreciable percentage elongation at break and projects waste polystyrene as a potential binder for emulsion paint formulation. Keywords: waste expanded polystyrene, types of solvent, physical properties, emulsion paint.
. AOAC (2000). Official Method of Analysis Int. (Horwitz, W; Editor). Gaithersburg Mongland, USA, 17th edition 1(41):1-68.
. Babayemi, JO; Dauda, KT (2009). Evaluation of Solid Waste Generation and Disposal Option In Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, Vol 13(3): 83-88.
. Beth, AMC and Jack, LK (2003). A review of polymer dissolution. Prog. Polym. Sc. 28: 1225 – 1270.
. Feusers, O; Zumbuhl, S (2008). The influence of organic solvents on the mechanical properties of alkyd and oil paints. 9th international conference on NDT of Art pp 1 – 14.
. Hlaing,NN and Oo, MM (2012). Manufacture of Alkyd Resin From Castor Oil. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology.
. Im,H; Kim,H; Kim,J (2009). Novel Miscible Blends Composed of Poly (Methyl methacrylate) & 2,2-Bis (3,4-Carboxyphenol) Hexaflouropropane Diahydride-Based Polyimides with Optical Grade Clarity. Material Transactions Vol. 50(7): 1730 -1736.
. Itoua, BV; Ogunniyi, DS; Ongoka, PR; Moussounga, JE; Ouamba, JM (2012). Physico – Chemical Properties Of Alkyd Resins and Palm Oil Blends. Malaysian Polymer Journal Vol. 792): 42 – 45.
. Kanatarifard, A &Yang, GS (2012). Identification of Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics and Potential of Plastic Recovery at Bakri Landfill, Muar Malaysia. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol 5(7):11-17.
. Osemeahon,SA; Barminas, JT (2007). Development of amino resin for paint formulation: Copolymerization of methylol urea with polyester. Afr. J. Biotechnol 6(12): 1432-1440.
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Abstract: The Cereals of today are more nutritious and healthful than ever before. Cereals processing is one of the oldest and the most essential part of all food technologies. Besides, it forms a large and indispensable component of the food production chain. The cereals processing industry is as diverse as its range of products. Drying and dewatering plays an important role in food manufacturing and food processing activities worldwide often one of the last operations in the food processing. In this study Pasta formulation was substituted with multi cereal composite mix at three different levels of 50, 70 and 90% (w/w) to enhance the nutritional profile. All the samples were evaluated for physical properties namely bulk density, swelling power, water holding capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, amino acid profile, morphological properties and nutritional properties i.e., protein, ash, crude fiber, fat and carbohydrate and calorific value. Extrusion cooking was carried out using a single screw extruder at 400rpm in different ratios and put forth for the sensory evaluation, colour and cooking qualities .The findings of the study revealed that multi cereal substitute with 50 % showed better result in terms nutrition and physical properties(P<0.05) which would be further utilized in development of therapeutic products.
Keywords: Cereals, Dehydration, Processing, Extrusion and Pasta
 Kill, R.C..Introduction in Pasta and Semolina Technology, Blackwell Sciences Ltd., London, U.K. p. (2001)11–42
 Tina, F. and Prabhasankar, P. 2010. Role of ingredients inpasta product quality: A review on recent developments. Critical Reviews in food science and nutrition 50 (8).2010:787-798.
 Douglass, J.S. and Matthews, R.H.. Nutrient content of pasta products. Cereal Foods World. 27(3) 1982 558–561.
 Prabhasankar P, Ganesan P & Bhaskar N. Influence of Indian brown seaweed (Sargassum marginatum) as an ingredient on quality, biofunctional, and microstructure characteristics of pasta. Food Science and Technology International 15(5) 2009 :471-479.
 Brennan CS. Dietary fibre, glycaemic response, and diabetes. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 49(6) 2005 :560-570.  Oberg, P. Co-extrusion: Recent developments using cooking Extruder. Cereal Foods World 32(2). 2000: 816-819.
 Leach HW, McCowen LD & Schoch TJ. Structure of the starch granule. I. Swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chem 36(6) 1956 :534-544.
 Beuchat LR. Functional and electrophoretic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 25(2) 1977 :258-261.
 Okaka JC & Potter NN. Physicochemical and functional properties of cowpea powders processed to reduce beany flavor. Journal of Food Science 44(4) 1979 :1235-1240.
 Narayana and NarasingaRao. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods. CRC Reviews Food Science and Nutrion 34(3) 1985: 31–67.
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Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the population dynamics of earthworms and the populations of total and cellulolytic bacteria in the soil across selected sites within the Imo State University main Campus Owerri, Nigeria. Four habitats, namely, land with trees and grass cover, lawn with total grass cover, lawn with scanty grass cover and abandoned farmland where selected and composite soil samples were collected from them. After analyzing some physico-chemical properties of soil samples, the total number of bacteria in nutrient-agar and aerobic cellulolytic bacteria in cellulose-agar were counted. Assessment of bacterial cellulolytic activity was performed via measurement of clear zone around of colony. Also, earthworms were collected from the study sites and their population density, biomass, length, proportion of adults and juveniles and taxonomic features were compared among the four habitats. Result showed that the land with trees and grass cover recorded the highest total bacteria, aerobic cellulolytic bacteria, proportion of cellulolytic bacteria, worm density, worm biomass, and worm length (241.4x104cfu/g, 123.8x104cfu/g, 51.28%, 37.5+10.8m-2, 5.2+2.1gm-2 and 20.4+8.1cm), followed by the lawn with total grass cover (203.6x104cfu/g, 96.8x104cfu/g, 47.54%, 23.5+6.4m-2, 3.3+1.8gm-2 and 13.4+6.2cm), the lawn with scanty grass cover (127.3x104cfu/g, 34.7x104cfu/g, 27.26%, 16.7+5.3m-2, 2.3+0.5gm-2 and 11.9+2.3cm) and the abandoned farmland (106x104cfu/g, 23.8x104cfu/g, 22.37%, 11.8+4.4m-2, 1.6+0.3gm-2 and 12.8+3.1cm). Mean ratio of clear zone diameter to colony were 1.60+0.42, 1.3+0.36, 0.8+0.22 and 1.93+0.25 for the land with trees and grass cover, the lawn with total grass cover, the lawn with scanty grass cover and the abandoned farmland, respectively. Higher ability of the cellulolytic bacteria in the abandoned farmland and the land with trees and grass cover may be due to species diversity. All four habitats had a higher proportion of adult earthworms than juvenile earthworms in an approximate ratio of 3:1, adult: juvenile. Finally, the taxonomic status of the earthworms in all four habitats suggested that they may belong to the same species. However, species identification was not attempted.
Keywords: Cellulolytic bacteria, Ecology, Earthworms, Imo State University main Campus
 Edwards, C. A., and Bohlen, P. J. (1996). Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. Chapman and Hall, London.
 Elmer, W.H. (2012). Using earthworms to improve soil health and suppression diseases. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (www. ct.gov/case).
 Grdisa, M., Grsic, K., and Grdisa, M.D. (2013). Earthworms- role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as food. International Journal of Science 10: 38-45.
 Edwards, C.A. and Bohlen, P.J. (1992). The effects of toxic chemicals on earthworms. Review in Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 125: 23-99.
 Stephens, P.M., Davoren, C. W., Doube, B.M., Ryder, M.H., Benger, A.M. and Neate, S.M. (1993). Reduced severity of Rhizoctonia solania diseases on wheat seedlings associated with the presence of the earthworms Aporrectodea trapezoids (Lumbricidae). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 1477-1484.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Analysis of Factors Responsible For Deforestation in Anambra State of Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Anyanwu, J. C., Nwobu, E. A., Osuiwu, B. O.|
Abstract: The research was carried out in four agro-ecological zones of Anambra State. The aim of the survey was to identify major causes of deforestation in the state. Data was generated through questionnaire survey. 30 households were sampled from 20 communities randomly selected from the four agro-ecological zones, making a total of 600 households. Out of the 600 questionnaires sent out to the 20 communities, a total of 489 were recovered. The study established the immediate and remote causes of deforestation in the study area as farming, construction works, rural poverty, population growth, government sponsored projects, fuelwood collection and hunting activities. The study recommended that modern farming techniques that emphasize conservation tillage, as well as plantation forestry, should be embraced as response to deforestation. The study also recommended the reduction of poverty, especially, in the rural areas of the state, as well as the formulation and implementation of policies geared towards the preservation of the forest ecosystem by the state and local governments.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Deforestation, Forest land-use, Forest livelihood, Soil degradation..
. FAO (1982a). "Conservation and Development of Tropical Forests Resources," Forestry paper 37 FAO, Rome.
. FAO (1982b). "World soil charter," Bulletin of the International Society of Soil Science. Vol. 62, pp. 30-37.
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. Kang, B.T., Reynolds, L., and Atta-Krah, A.N. (1990). Alley Farming, IITA Reprint, Ibadan.
. Ofomata, G.E.K. (1975). Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States. In G.E.K. Ofomata (Ed). Vegetation Types and Soils. pp. 30-45. Ethiope Publishing House, Benin, Nigeria.
. The New York Times, January 30 (2009). New Jungles Prompt a Debate on Rain Forests.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Investigating the nutrient composition and anti-nutritional factors of 'Akidi' (Vigna unguiculata unguiculata)|
|Authors||:||Agugo, U. A, Okere, T. O, Anya, K. M.|
Abstract: The chemical and anti-nutritional composition of a locally grown, underutilized legume 'Akidi'(Vigna unguiculata unguiculata) was investigated, with the aim of creating awareness on its nutritional importance, diversifying food choice and increasing household food security. 'Akidi' seed was procured from a local farmer from Nsukka in Enugu State, Nigeria. Dehulling and boiling were the two treatments applied. The samples were analyzed for proximate, mineral and anti nutritional compositions. The result revealed no difference in the protein content of whole and dehulled samples (22.8%), while boiling slightly reduced the protein content to 18.3%. Highest moisture of 12.4% was observed with the boiled sample. Crude fiber content of 'akidi 'was 2.2%, 1.3% and 1.2% for raw, boiled and dehulled samples, respectively. The anti nutritional factors (phytate, oxalate and tannin) contents of 'akidi' were minimal except saponnin which was found to be 4.80% for whole sample and was reduced to 3.6 and 3.0 % on dehulled and boiled samples, respectively. The analysis also revealed that 'akidi' seed contains low magnesium, potassium and sodium but rich in calcium and iron. Iron content of 14.6 mg, 13.1 mg, and 11.4 mg were obtained for whole, boiled and dehulled samples, respectively. Processing enhanced the carbohydrate and energy content of 'akidi'. Carbohydrate content increased from 59.7 % for whole 'akidi' to 62.6 % and 65.2 % for dehulled and boiled, respectively. While energy contents of 344 cal, 357 cal and 349 cal were obtained for whole, dehulled and boiled samples. 'Akidi' seed was low in anti nutritional factors and can serve as good sources of protein, energy and iron when adequately consumed.
Keywords: 'Akidi', proximate, anti-nutrient, dehulling, boiling
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hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:1146-55.
 Geil, P.B., Anderson, J.W. Nutrition and health implications of dry beans: a review. J. Am Coll. Nutri 1994.; 13(6): 549-558
Olusanya (2008). Essentials of food and Nutrition. Published by Apex books limited No. 262, Ipaga Rd Lagos Pg 85 – 104.
 Ihekoronye, A.L, and Ngoddy, P.O. Integrated Food Science and Technology for tropic Macmillian. London 1985, pp 360.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Chemical Composition and Modeling of the Functions of Termitarium|
|Authors||:||Kamalu, C. I. O. , Okolie, I. J.|
Abstract: The work was carried out in Fugro Consultants Nigeria Limited, Port Harcourt. It was the identification, extraction and characterization of chemical compounds responsible for making termination. The results showed that termitarium contains 11.6 (g/kg) of TOM; 15.9 (mg/kg) of Magnesium, 11690 (mg/kg) of iron and 23.3 (mg/kg) of extractable chloride which are responsible for structural stability of termitarium. The result also revealed that increase of clay content enhances the structural stability of termitarium. % water absorbed Vs time(s) for control and termitarium, mean number of seedings Vs time (days) for control and termitarium, gave their R-square (correlation coefficient) as 0.9975, 0.9951, 0.9959, 09807 and 0.09995 respectively.
Keywords: Chemical composition, termite, termitarium, biomodeling, curve-fit, nest, castes.
. Bignell , D . E . , Davies , R . G . & Maryati , M . ( 1999 ) Termite assemblages,forest disturbance and greenhouse gas fl uxes in Sabah, EastMalaysia . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of LondonSeries B-Biological Sciences , 354 , 1791 – 1802 .
. Gehring, C., Denich, M., Kanashiro, M. and Vlek, P.L. G. (1999), Response of Secondary Vegetation in Eastern Amazonia to relaxed nutrient availability constraints. Biogeochemistry 45 (3), 223 – 241.
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. Jouquet, P., Lepage, M. and Velde, B. (2002). Termite Soil preference and particle selections: strategies related to ecology requirement. His. Soc. 49 ( 1- 7)
. Mora, P. , Seuge, C., Chotte, J. L. and Rouland, C. (2003). Physics-chemical typology of the biogenic structure of termites and earthworms: a comparative analysis. 37: 245 – 249
. Brady, N. C. and Weli, R. R. (1999). Soil Erosion and its control, 12th ed., the nature and properties of Soils, Prentice Hall, pp. 668 – 722).
. Holt, J.A. and Leapge, M. (2000). Termites and soil properties, In: Abe, T., Bignell, D. E.; termites. Evolution, sociality, Symbioses, Ecology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 389 – 408.
. William, L. Luyben (1989). Process Modeling Simulation and Control, 2nd Ed. 4: 13– 18.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Microsatellite markers in Aquaculture: Application in Fish population genetics|
|Authors||:||Mojekwu, T. O., Anumudu, C. I.|
Abstract: Microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) represent an abundant source of genetic markers which are highly abundant and dispersed evenly throughout eukaryotic genomes. They have become the markers of choice for a wide range of applications in population genetic, conservation and evolutionary biology. Microsatellites represent ideal molecular markers because they have multiple alleles which are highly polymorphic among individuals. Polymorphism is achieved by having variable numbers of tandem repeat motifs resulting in size variation which can then be visualized by PCR with pairs of locus-specific flanking primers, followed by electrophoresis of the amplification product. Microsatellite motifs occurs once every 10kb in fishes. They are inherited in a co-dominant fashion, and are fast and easy to assay. They are co-dominant in nature with high levels of polymorphism and can reproduce very well. Hence, giving better information than the dominant marker .This makes them a choice maker for estimating population structure and genetic diversity.
Keywords: Microsatellites, markers, fish, population, genetics
. Ahmad J.N., Azizah, M.N., Adikwu, I.A., Istifanus, W. A.,Abalis,G.E and Muchlisin,Z.A (2012). Diversity and distribution of fishes of Gaji River, Bauchi state Nigeria. Advances in Environmental sciences-International journal of the bioflux society vol 4, issue 2. Pp.50 -54.
. Aida, T. (1921) On the inheritance of color in a freshwater fish, Aplocheilus latipes, Temmick and Schlegel. Genetics 6, 554–573.
. Alam S and Islam S (2005). Population genetic structure of Catla catla (Hamilton) revealed by microsatellite DNA markers. Aquaculture 246: 151-160.
. Al-Atiyat,R.M., Tabbaa, M.J., Salameh,N.M., Tarawneh, K.A.,Al-shamyla .L and Al- Tamimie, H.J (2012).Analysis of genetic fat tailed sheep in southern region of Jordan.Asian J.Anim.Vet.Adv.,7:376 -389.
. Bartfai, R., Egedi, S., Yue, G.H., Kovacs, B., Urbanyi, B., Tamas, G., Horvath, L. and Orban, L (2003). Genetic analysis of two common carp broodstocks by RAPD and microsatellite markers. Aquaculture, 219: 157–167.
. Barbosa ACDR, Corrêa TC, Galzerani F, Galetti-Júnior PM. (2006). Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6: 936-938.
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. Boris Brinez, Xenia Caraballo O, Marcel Salazar V (2011). Genetic diversity of six populations of red hybrid tilapia, using Microsatellite genetic Markers. Rev.MVZ Cordoba 16 (2): 2491-2498.
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Abstract: Bioethanol is an alternative fuels derived from biomass that is more environmentally friendly and renewable. Corncob and sugarcane bagasse are a potential agricultural wastes used as raw material for bioethanol because it has a high carbohydrate content and abundant availability. The efforts to increase bioethanol production performed by enzymatic hydrolysis method using fungus cultures of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. This study aims to determine the best combination of the addition of A. niger and T. viride cultures on corncob and sugarcane bagasse raw materials which produces optimal bioethanol production with high substrate efficiency and low residual sugars content. The results showed that the use of corncob raw materials with the addition of Aspergillus niger culture is the best treatment combination that produces ethanol at 282,3 ml/kg with 90,35% substrate efficiency. While the bagasse raw material, the addition of Trichoderma viride culture is the best treatment combination that produces ethanol at 299,2 ml/kg with 90,95% substrate efficiency.
Keyword: Bioethanol, hydrolysis, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, fermentation
. A.K Chandel, E.S. Chan., R. Rudravaram, M.L. Narasu, L.V. Rao and P. Ravindra, Economics and environmental impact of bioethanol production technologies: An appraisal, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Review. 2(1), 2007, 14-32
. E.M. Clark, Molecular characterization of side-chain cleaving hemicellulaces of Trichoderma reesei, Academic Dissertation, Technical Reserach Centre of Finland, 1996
. F. Tao, J.Y. Miao, G.Y. Shi and K.C. Zhang, Ethanol Fermentation by an acid tolerant Zymomonas mobilis under non-sterilized condition, Journal Process Biochemistry, 40, 2005, 183-187
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