Version-1 (July–August 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect Of Kartodim 315ec (Dimethoate) and Lambda – (Cyhalothrin) On Electrolytes of Clarias Gariepinus.|
|Authors||:||E. N. Ogamba, I. R. Inyang, O. C. Okechukwu|
Abstract: Changes in the Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Calcium (Ca+) ions of the fish, Clarias gariepinus, (Burchell; 1822) subjected to sub lethal concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 ml) of Kartodim 315 EC (Dimethoate and Lambda- Cyhalothrin), a pesticide, over a period of 96 hours were studied in a semi- static (renewal) system. The result indicated that the Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the liver exhibited a sight fluctuation in their values, with Na+ and K+ increasing while Ca2+ decreased (P>0.05) with increased concentrations of Kartodim 315 EC. For the kidney electrolytes, their was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in value with increased concentrations of Kartodim 315 EC, with the exception of sodium (Na+) (P>0.05). The overall pictures of changes in the composition of ion concentration does not exclude the possibility of kidney damage in the experimental fish. The ions (electrolytes) provide some information on the osmotic pressure and osmoregulatory changes in the fish. The kidney and Liver electrolytes are all involved in general ion regulation and in cell membrane processes.
Keywords: Dimethoate and Lambda- cyhalothrin, Clarias gariepinus, Electrolytes, Kidney, Liver.
. Adeyemo, O. K., Agbede, S. A. Olaniyan, A. O., Shoaga, O. A. (2003). The hematological response of Clarias geriepinus to changes in acclimation temperature. African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 6, 105-108.
. Anees, M. A. (1987). Haematological abnormalities in a fresh water Teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch), exposed to sublethal and chronic levels of three organophosphorus insecticides. Int. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 4:53-356
. APHA (American Public Health Association) 1998. Standard methods for examination of water and waste water APHA, Washington DC.
. Beat, G., W. Anres, S. Gunter and S. Mairc. (1997). The Pyrethroids permethrin and Cyhalothrin are potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex. J. Pharm. Exp. Therapeutic, pp: 281-860.
. Benarji and Rajendranth (1990). Haematological changes induced by an organophosphorus insecticide in a freshwater fish, Clarias batrachus (Linnacus). Trop. Fresh water. Biol. 2:197-202
. Bond, C. E. (1979). Biology of Fish. Saunders college publishing Philadelphia, U.S.A. 514P.
. Burton, R. F. (1986). Ionic regulation in fish. The influence of acclimation Temperature on plasma composition and apparent set points. Comparative biochemistry and physiology 85A:23-28.
. De Moor I. J. and Bruton M. N. (1988). Atlas of Alien and translocated Indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa. South African National Scientific programmes Report 114, South Africa.
. Grinshaw, G. (1978). Chemistry Ibadan Evans Brothers Ltd., pp. 32
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Abstract: Coastal waters of South Minahasa Regency is potential for fish farming of floating fish cage system, but the potency has not been optimally taken yet.Low interest of the people in running this fish farming system results from slow fish growth and mortality.In general, the failure of this culture system is a consequence of location setting that does not consider the water quality condition as a site suitability requirement.Until now, there is no study on site suitability of fish farming in floating nets in South Minahasa Regency, particularly Amurang District, affecting the fish farming success.This study was aimed at determining the site suitability for trevally (caranx spp.) farming using the floating fish cage system in the coastal waters of Amurang District, South Minahasa Regency. It was carried out in Amurang Bay using a survey method. The primary data was obtained by direct field measurement at the observation points using a Global Positioning System (GPS). The determination of sampling points was expected to be able to describe the condition of Amurang waters. The secondary datacovered the 1:50.000-scaled earth map of South Minahasa with Arc-Info format released from Badan Koordinasi Survei and Pemetaan Nasional (Bakorsutanal-National Coordination Body for Survey and Mapping) and Landsat 7-ETM image. Water samples were analyzed in the Water Laboratory Nusantara. Data Analyisesused Geographic Information System..In general, sites for floating cage fish farming in Amurang District were categorized as suitable, conditional suitable, unsuitable.The area available and potential for this culture system was 150 Haandsuitable for trevally (caranx spp.) culture was38 Ha. This suitability data was expected to become critical information and reference for the regional government, investors, fishermen and fish farmers in developing the fish culture in the floating fish cage.
Keywords: site feasibility, suitability, water quality.
 Majariana,K dan Zulhamsyah,I. 2006. Daya Dukung Lingkungan Perairan Teluk Ekas Untuk Pengembangan Kegiatan Budidaya Ikan Kerapu Dalam Karamba Jaring Apung. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. J.II.Pert.Indon.Vol.II (2). 2006  Sukandi, M. F. 2002.Peningkatan Teknologi Perikanan ( The Improvement ofFish Culture Technology). Journal Icthyoligi Indonesia.Vol 2 No 2. Hal 61-66 University Press. Oreginal English Edition. Fundamental of EcologyThurd Edition, Yokyakarta [
8] Fuller, Holly.2010.m Publication info: Countryside and Small Stock Journal 94.2 (Mar/Apr 2010): 35-36. ProQuest document link
 Hartoko,A dan Helmi,M. 2004. Development of Digital Multilayer Ecological Model for Padang Coastal Water (West Sumatera). Journal of Coastal Development. Vol 7.No 3 hal 129-136.
 Radiarta, I. Ny., A. Saputra., O, Johan. 2005. Pemetaan Kelayakan Lahan untuk Pengembangan Usaha Budidaya Laut dengan Aplikasi Inderaja dan Sistem Informasi Geografis di Perairan Lemito, Propinsi Gorontalo. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia, Vol.11 No 1 hal 1-13. Books:
 Milne, P. H. 1979. Fish and Shellfish Farming in Coastal Waters.Fishing NewsBook Ltd, Farnham Surrey
 Anonimous.2011. Profil Kabupaten Minahasa Selatan.Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Kabupaten Minahasa Selatan.
 Nontji, A. 2005. Laut Nusantara. Edisi revisi. Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta.
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Abstract: Nowadays amount of solid wastes are increasing very fast. Accumulation of urban solid wastes is not balanced in perspective of good environmental management. Therefore, the study of urban solid wastes management system and the participation of urban communities in solid wastes management is needed. This study aimed to analyze level of importance and performance of the existing solid wastes management system, urban communities' participation, and relationship between urban community perception and their participation in existing system of solid waste management in Tomohon City. Scientific methodes in data analysis are the Importance Performance Analysis (IPA), The Chougill's ladder for participation level, and the Product-Moment correlation.Results of research suggested that existing waste management aspects that are on the first quadrant (as the main priority), consist of (a) lack of cleanliness of the solid wastes collection sites, (b) the limited numbers of the solid wastes collection sites, (c) time schedule for solid wates collection which is done on 2-3 days interval, (d) the fewer numbers of solid waste supervisor, and (e) the response to public complaints should be intensified in improving any public services in relation to solid wastes management. Results of community participation analysis based on Chougill 's ladder shows that community role in solid wastes management is in the phase of conspiracy (1.68), the community action is in the phase of peace (3.12), community motivation is in the phase of information (2.0), and community responsibility is in the phase of information (1.86). The relation between community perception (X) and community participation (Y) is statistically significant (r = 0.983). It is concluded that "community participation" in solid wastes management is significantly determined by their "perception".
Keywords: Importance Performance Analysis, Perception, Participation, Solid Wastes Management.
 Aryenti. 2011. Peningkatan Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Pengelolaan Sampah Dengan Cara 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) di Lingkungan Permukiman Ditinjau Dari Segi Sosial Ekonomi Masyarakat. Jurnal Permukiman, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 75-83. www.jurnal.usu.ac.id/ index.php/persos/article.
 Chougill, M.B.G. 1996. A letter of Community Participation for Underdevelopment Countries,Habitat Intl, Vol.20; No.3; pp.431-444.
 Drackner M. 2005. An anthropological perspective on garbage. Waste Management and Research 23 :175-181.
 Ehrampoush, M.H., M.B. Mogahadam. 2005. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of Yazd University of Medical Sciences students about solid wastes disposal and recycling. Iranian J. Env. Health Sci Eng.,2(2):26-30.
 Hartanto W., H. Wahyono, W.P. Tyas, 2009. Kinerja Pengelolaan Sampah di Kota Gombong Kabupaten Kebumen.Jurnal Tata Kota dan Daerah, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 24-29.http://eprints.undip.ac.id/15948.
 Himawanto D.A., D. Dhewanggap, Indarto, H. Saptoadi, dan T.A. Rohmat, 2010. Pengolahan Sampah Kota Terseleksi Menjadi Refused Derived Fuel Sebagai Bahan Bakar Padat Alternatif. Jurnal Teknik Industri, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 127-133.
 Isa, M.H., F.A.H. Asaari, N.A. Ramli, S. Ahmad, T.S. Siew, 2005. Solid waste collection and recycling in Nibong, Tebal, Penang, Malaysia: a case study. Waste Managt & Res., 23(6): 565-570.
 Katonika K., 2009. What is an Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP)?. Tribal Waste Journal, Issue7,EPA53O-N-09-002.www.epa.gov/tribalmsw.
 Kitcharoen, K. 2004. The Importance-Performance Analysis Of Service Quality In Administrative Departments Of Private Universities In Thailand. ABAC Journal Vol. 24.No. 3. pp. 20-46. http://www.journal.au.edu/abac_journal/2004/sep04/ajvol24n3_article3.pdf
 Leuhery L., 2011. Kajian Keandalan Pola Penanggulangan Sampah Padat : Studi Kasus pada Kota Balikpapan-Kalimantan Timur. Jurnal Arika, Vol. 05, No. 1, pp. 17-26.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Molecular Characterization of an Unidentified Cichlid, Commonlly Called, 'Wesafu', Using Rapd Markers|
|Authors||:||Megbowon I., Fashina-Bombata, H. A.|
Abstract: Genetic variation and divergence within and between the taxa of interest are assessed by the presence or absence of each product, which is dictated by changes in the DNA sequence at each locus. The study was conducted to assess the genetic differences between population of 'wesafu' and other cichlids in Epe legoon, Lagos, Nigeria and determine the level of divergence of 'wesafu' from other species of cichlids in Epe lagoon for baseline documentation. The genomic DNA was isolated using the standard phenol - chloroform method. Primer OPC-04 (5' CCG CAT CTA C 3'), which are arbitrary primers, were used to type the isolates. The results showed that of the 40 fish isolates typed, 29 isolates (17 of 'Wesafu' and 12 of other cichlids) were positive for RAPD DNA bands after amplification. This gives a type ability of 72.5%. The difference observed between 'Wesafu' and other cichlids in typeability with OPC-04 was not significant (P = 0.08). Fingerprint analyses revealed 6 distinct RAPD types, 3 for 'wesafu' and 3 for other species of cichlids with molecular sizes of 100 – 500 base pairs. RAPD profile B was elicited by 58.3% of the Tilapia (other cichlids) isolates, while profile F was elicited by 53% of the 'Wesafu' isolates. These most occurring RAPD profiles were not significant (P > 0.05) when compared with other RAPD profiles seen. RAPD-PCR proves to be reliable as a typing tool for discriminating 'Wesafu' from other cichlids (tilapia) isolates in Epe Lagoon. 'Wesafu' and other (cichlids) tilapia in the Epe Lagoon present fish population from 3 distinct clones.
Key words: Molecular, Characterization, 'wesafu', RAPD
. Almeida, F.S, Fungaro, M.H.P, and Sodre, L.M.K. (2004): RAP and isozyme analysis of genetic variability in three allied species of catfish (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Tibagi river. Journal of Zoology, Munich, 253(1), 113-120. Ackman R. (1989). Nutritional composition of fats in Seafoods. Progressive Nutrition Sciences 13: 161-241.
. Bardekei F. and Shibinski D.O.F. (1994). Application of RAPD technique in Tilapia fish: species and sub-species identification. Heredity, 73: 117-123.
. Bielawski J.P. and Pumo D.E. (1997). Randomly Amplifies DNA (RAPD) analysis of Atlantic coast stripped bass . Heredity, Oxford, V. 78:32-40.
. Billingto N. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA . E,M.Hallerman (Ed.), Population Genetics: Principles and Application for Fisheries Scientists. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland; 59-100.
. Crossland, S., Coates, D., Grahame, J., Mill, P.J., 1993. Use of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) in separating two sibling species of Littorina. Mar. Ecol., Prog. Ser. 96, 301– 305.
. Dinesh, K.R., Chan, W.K., Lim, T.M., Phang, V.P.E., 1995. RAPD markers in fishes: an evaluation of resolution and reproducibility. Asia-Pac. J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 112– 118.
. Fashina-Bombatta H.A., R.G. Ajepe and A.M. Hemmed and A.A. Jimoh (2005).Characterization of an ecotype cichlid commonly referred to as wesafu, endemic to Epe lagoon, Nigeria. World Aquaculture 36;20-22.
. Fashina-Bombatta H.A, R.G Ajepe and A.M Hemmed (2006). Food and feeding habits of an ecotype cichlid,wesafu from Epe lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. World Aquaculture , 37; 62-66.
. Hammed A.M, Fashina-Bombata H.A. and Fadaja O.O. (2010). Tissue and blood acids composition of an ecotype cichlid wesafu, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus using paper chromatography. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition Pakistani Journal of nutrition 9 (7): 724-727
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects of mercury and nickel impurities on optical properties of copper sulfide (CuS) thin films deposited by chemical bath technique.|
|Authors||:||J. C. Osuwa, E. C. Mgbaja|
Abstract: Thin films of copper sulfide (CuS) with varying concentrations of mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni) impurities (0.01M-0.03M) were grown on glass substrates at room temperature (300K) using chemical bath deposition technique. Spectral transmittance and reflectance of the thin films were measured with a spectrophotometer in the UV-Vis-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The effects of the impurities on other optical spectra obtained theoretically were quantitatively evaluated from the spectrophotometer data . The energy band gap increased for all Hg impurity concentrations to a maximum of 3.25 eV for 0.02M Hg impurity as against 2.65 eV for as grown CuS thin film, while the band gap decreased for all Ni impurity concentrations to a minimum of 1.85 eV for O.01M Ni impurity. The absorbance increased with both Hg and Ni impurity concentrations while the transmittance decreased with Ni impurities and increased with Hg impurities. The results also show increase in absorption coefficient and decrease in reflectance for both Hg and Ni impurities with a maximum reflectance of 70% for as grown thin film down to 10% wlth 0.01 Ni impurity. Values for the refractive index reduced to 1.0 with 0.01M of both impurities from a maximum of 2.4 for as grown CuS thin film. Also, results of the absorbance, transmittance and reflectance as presented here converged at 300 nm and diverged to 900 nm wavelength limit.
Keywords: Hg and Ni impurities, optical properties, impurity concentrations, copper sulfide.
 Osuwa J. C, Oriaku I.C and Mgbaja E. C, (2010) Synthesis and Optical Parameters of Pb15Cd45S40 Layered Coating Chalcogenide Letters 7 (12) 679-684
 Pathan H.M, Lokhande C. D, (2004) Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method Bull. Mater. Sci. Vol. 27 No. 2 pp. 85-111
 Grozdanov I and Najdoski M (1995) Optical and Electrical properties of copper sulphide films of variable composition. J. Solid State Chem. 114 469
 Suarez R and Nair P. K (1996) Co-Deposition of PbS-CuS thin films by chemical Technique. J. Solid State Chem. 123 296
 Nascu C, Pop I, Ionescu V, Indrea E and Bratu I (1997) Spray pyrolysis of Cu thin films. Mater. Lett. 32 73
 Popa A. M, Lisca V. S, Bada M, Pentia E and Bolita T (2000) Crystalline size effect In PbS thin films grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. J. of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. Vol 8. No. 1
 Ugwu E. I (2006) Optical properties of Iron halide (FCl2) thin film deposited by using solution growth technique (SGT) Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 7 (2) 97-102
 Ottih I. E and Ekpunobi A.J (2010) X-ray and optical characterization of chemical bath deposited cadmium Nickel Sulphide CdNS thn films. Journal of Basic Physical Research Vol.I p 17-22
 Gosh P.K, Miltra M. K andChattopadhyay K. K (2005) ZnS nanobelts grown in a polymer matrix by chemical bath deposition. Nanotechnology 16, `07-112
 Ezema F. I, Ekwealor A. B. C and Osuji R.U (2006) Effect of thermal annealing on the band gap and optical properties of chemical bath deposited ZnSc thin film. Turkish Journal of Phsics 30, 157-163
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Marine Diatoms|
P. Karthikeyan, K. Manimaran, P. Sampathkumar1, M. Jaikumar, R. S. Robin,
Abstract: The in vitro total antioxidant assay, total phenolic content, DPPH assay, FRAP assay of the acetone extracts from four centric diatoms (Chaetoceros simplex, Skeletonema costatum, Odontella mobiliensis, Coscinodiscus centralis) and three pennate diatoms (Nitzschia closterium, Pleurosigma angulatum and Navicula sp.) were performed. The centric diatom, O. mobiliensis was found higher amount of phenolic content (0.75 ± 0.06) followed by C. simplex. The maximum total antioxidant activity of 45.03 ± 2.1 ascorbic acid equivalent/g was observed in P. angulatum followed by the centric diatom C. simplex. The O. mobiliensis was showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity of 70.04 ± 4.17 % followed by C. simplex (55.69 ± 2.52 %) and P. angulatum (49.57 ± 2.74 %). The phenolic compounds of acetone extracts were not major contributor to the antioxidant capacities of these diatoms. The pigments such as, chlorophylls and carotenoids may be the main contributor of antioxidant activity in this study. The total antioxidant activity may be increased when extracted other solvent. Thus, these species can be act as natural antioxidant source for food preservation and protection of organisms from the degenerative diseases.
Keywords: Total Antioxidant activity, Marine diatoms, DPPH assay, FRAP assay, Total Phenolics.
 Madhavi DL, Deshpande SS, Salunkhe DK. Food antioxidants: Technological, toxicological. Health perspective New York: Marcel Dekker 1996.
 Simpore J, Kabore F, Zongo F, Dansou D, Bere A, Pignatelli S, et al. Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola. Nutr J 2006; 5:3–7.
 Gigante DP, Buchweitz M, Helbig E, Almeida AS, Araujo CL, Neumann NA, Victora C. Randomized clinical trial of the impact of a nutritional supplement "multimixture" on the nutritional status of children enrolled at preschools. J Pediatr 2007; 83:363–9.
 Wu LC, Ho JA, Shieh MC, Lu IW. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Spirulina and Chlorella water extracts. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53: 4207–12.
 Marcason W. Is supplementation of B vitamins still recommended to reduce the risk of heart disease? J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107:525–31.
 Safer AM, Al-Nughamish AJ. Hepatotoxicity induced by the anti-oxidant food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) in rats: An electron microscopical study. Histology and Histopathology 1999; 14: 391–406.
 Rangasamy Ragupathi Raja Kannan, Arumugam R, Anantharaman P. In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Enhalus acoroides (L.F.)Royle. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 2010; 898-901.
 Jia ZS, Zhou B, Yang L, Wu LM, Liu ZL. Antioxidant synergism of tea polyphenols and a-tocopherol against free radical induced peroxidation of linoleic acid in solution. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2: Physical Organic Chemistry 1998; 4: 911–15
 Poeggeler B, Reiter RJ, Hardeland R, Sewerynek E, Melchiorri D, Barlow-Walden LR. Melatonin, a mediator of electron transfer and repair reactions, acts synergistically with the chainbreaking antioxidants ascorbate, trolox and glutathione. Neuroendocrinology Letters 1995; 17(2): 87–92.
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Abstract: Evaluation of Proximate, phytochemical and mineral elements compositions of some edible fruit grown in an oil producing community (Umuetchem) of Rivers State, Nigeria were investigated. The fruits were citrus sinensis (orange), Psidium guajava (guava), Ananas Comosus (Pineapple), Carica Papaya (pawpaw) and Dacryodes edulis (African pear). Proximate analysis on wet weight basis indicated that, both the test and control fruit samples [edible parts] were high in moisture contents. Proximate analysis showed slight variation between samples but not statistically significant (p<0.05). Samples were slightly higher in their energy content with values ranging from 37.64±0.70 to 433. 78 ± 0.05, relative to the control which had values in the ranged of 27.04±0.21 to 431.87±0.81. Phytochemical analysis of the fruits showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids and phytates. All samples had very low concentration of cyanogenic glycoside (0.02±0.00) below lethal dose.These values showed no significant difference (p<0.05). Phytochemical analysis portrayed all these fruits safe for human consumption as they contained low concentrations of anti-nutrients, below reference toxic standard. The mineral elements analysis indicated that all the samples contained low levels of mineral elements with Potassium as predominant element. with a level as high as 35.10±0.05 in guava and as low as 10.04±0.01 [pineapple] relative to the control samples which had values in the range of 8.39±0.01 to 39.46±0.05, values showed no significant difference (p<0.05) All the samples were poor sources of Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium, Zinc and Iron and they showed significant difference (p<0.05). The concentrations of Lead (Pb) and nickel in all the samples from the two areas were very low and values showed no significant difference (p<0.05). Mercury was not detected in all the samples. The investigated parameters showed that samples were fairly adequate in their nutrients composition but very poor in mineral elements.
Keywords: Analysis,Concentration,Fruits, Mineral Elements, Proximate, Phytochemical
 J.O. Olusanya, Essentials of food and nutrition. 1st edition, Apex Books limited, Lagos, pp. 36-77, 2008.
 I.O. Lawal, N.E. Uzokwe, A.B.I. Igboanugo, A.F. Adio, E.A. Awosan, J.O. Nwogwugwu, B. Faloye, B.P. Olatunji, and A.A. Adesoga, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4 (1): 004-007, 2010.
 D.E. Okwu,Intl.J.Mol.Med.Adv.Sci. 1(4):357–381, 2005.
 E. Rukangira, the African herbal industry: constraints and challenges. A paper presented at "the natural products and cosmeceuticals 2001 conference" it was published in erbonsteria Domani "August 2001.
 O.I. Ibanga, and D.E. Okon, Journal of Food Science Technology, 7(4)106-110, 2009.
 D.E. Okwu, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment,6:30-34, 2004.
 L. Prince and P. Prabakaram, Asian J.Plant Science Research, 2011, 1.1,84, 2011.
 A. Wenkam, A., Utilization and processing of fruits. Macmillan. Press, London, 5:388-506, 1990.
 R.S. Wills, Post-harvest: An introduction to the physiology of handling fruits, vegetables and ornamental (4th Edn). Publication University of new Wales press Ltd. Vol. 560, 1998.
 FAO, Compositional Analysis methods In: Manuals of food quality control. Food analysis, general techniques, additives, contaminants and composition of food and Agricultural organization of the United Nations Pp. 203-232, 1980.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Some Quality Attributes of Locally Produced Wheat Flour in Storage|
|Authors||:||Adejumo, B. A.|
Abstract: Wheat flour is an excellent source of complex carbohydrate which is also used for the production of all sorts of pastries and confectionaries. Locally produced wheat flour in Nigeria has been in recent times reconstituted into dough and eaten with soup to replace the popular Amala (yam flour dough) due to its numerous nutritional and health benefits. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of selected packaging materials and storage duration on some proximate and physical properties of locally produced and packaged wheat flour in storage. Thirty kilograms (30kg) of wheat was sorted, milled and sieved. Initial proximate and physical properties of wheat flour were determined using standard methods. One kilogram (1kg) each was packaged in hessian bag, polyethylene bag, and covered plastic container; with unpackaged samples as control. All the samples were stored on a shelf at the normal room temperature (27 – 35oC). Packaged samples was stored for 3 months at 3 replicates (3x3x3 = 27samples) with the proximate and physical properties determined on monthly basis. The data collected were analyzed statistically using the SPSS 15.0 statistical package. The results shows that the wheat flour had an initial moisture content of 9.2%, crude protein 11.5%, fat 1.8%, ash 1.4%, crude fiber 2.2%, carbohydrate 73.6%, loose bulk density 0.36, packed bulk density 0.58, pH 5.8, swelling capacity 1.3%, water absorption capacity 145% and least gelatin concentration of 6.0%. Statistical analysis shows that packaging types and storage duration has significant effects (p < 0.05) on the moisture content, swelling capacity, water absorption capacity and pH. The packaging types and the storage duration however does not have significant effects on the crude protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrate and least gelatin concentration of locally produced wheat flour stored for three months. It is recommended that wheat flour should be packed in airtight and moisture proof bag especially in areas of high humidity to prevent mold growth and maintain it qualities when stored under room temperature.
Keywords: Wheat, packaging types, storage, quality attributes
 Boye, J., F. Zare and A. Pletch (2010). Pulse proteins: Processing, charact erization, functional properties and applications in food and feed. Food Res. Int.,43: 414-431.
 Ayo JA, Ayo VA, Nkama I, Adeworie R (2007). Physiochemical, Invitro Digestibility and Organoleptic Evaluation of Acha-wheat Biscuit Supplemented with Soybean flour.
 Svec, I. and M. Hruskova (2010). Evaluation of wheat bread features. J. Food Eng., 99:505-510.
 Shahzadi, N., M.S. Butt, S.U. Rehman and K. Sharif (2005). Rheological and baking performance of composite flours. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 7: 100-104.
 Pena, E., A. Bernardo, C. Soler and N. Jouve (2006). Dotyrosine crosslinks contribute to the formation of the gluten network in common wheat dough. J. Cereal Sci., 44: 144-153.
 Rizkalla, S.W., F. Bellisle and G. Slama (2002). Health benefits of low glycaemic index foods, such as pulses, in diabetic patients and healthy individuals.Br. J. Nutr., 88: 255262.
 Kent, N.L. and A.D. Evers. (1993). Technology of Cereals. 4th ed. Elsevier Sci. Ltd, U.K. 104p.
 Bakshi, A.K. and A.K. Sharma. (1993). Changes in the quality of wheat stored in different conditions. Indian J. Nut. Dietetics. 30(10):285-289.
 Caddick, L.P. and S.P. Shelton. (1997). Storability of wheat at 13% moisture content: field study and review. GRDC Report CSE. 94.
 AOAC (1990): official methods of analysis of association of official analytical chemists,Washington D.C.reochromis niloticus using paper chromatography. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition Pakistani Journal of nutrition 9 (7): 724-727
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Myrmecophily on Leucas chinensis (Lamiaceae)|
|Authors||:||Prasad. E. R. & Sunojkumar P.|
Abstract: Ants were identified as the most common and abundant floral visitor. The observed behaviour indicated that ants may contribute to pollination on Leucas chinensis. Detailed studies were carried out on the Phenology, floral biology, pollination and breeding system of L. chinensis. The main flowering season between August-December and occasional flowering found other seasons also. The flower is typical Lamiacean bilabiate. The inflorescence is verticillaster. Inflorescence initials are generally activated in the leaf axils. Anther dehiscence mode is longitudinal. The pollen grains were spherical and tricolpate. The size of the pollen is 24.90 ± 3.0 and 85% of pollen viable at 12am. The stigma is dry type and receptive between 11am-12pm. The fruit is nutlet and seed ovule ratio is 4:4. In breeding experiment we found that apomixis not present in this Leucas member maximum fruit set occur in the open pollination and xenogamy (95% and 90% respectively). The flower offer nectar and pollen as rewards for floral visitors. Flowers were visited by several insects and butterflies. The potential pollinators were Apis cerana, Amegilla sp., Ceratina sp. and Componotus parius were pollinators. The pollen grains were stuck on the ant body while visiting flower we directly documented ants movement on flower.
. Christian Westerkamp and Regine Claben-Bockoff 2007. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees? Annals of Botany 100: 361–374.
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. Huck R.B (1992). Overview of pollination biology in the Lamiaceae. In R.M and I. Renolds (editors). Adavance in Labiate science, pp. 167-181. Royal Botanical Garden Kew.
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Abstract: Oil spillage has become a global environmental problem. Natural bioremediation is the only eco-friendly solution to resist its devastating environmental and economic damage damage. In this investigation, petroleum tolerant and degrading bacteria were isolated from different oil-contaminated soil and water samples. Bushnell Haas media supplemented with petrol, kerosene, and diesel as sole carbon sources was used for isolation of bacteria capable of degrading these petroleum fractionates. From three soil samples and two water samples, a total of nine bacterial strains were isolated capable of degrading petrol, kerosene and diesel with varying tolerance capacities. The isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and morphological studies, and it was determined that these strains belong to six bacterial genera e.g., Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Klebsiella and Corynebacterium. The isolated Staphylococcus spp. were found to be the most tolerant isolate withstanding as high as 7% petroleum. The others also exhibit tolerance to varying concentrations of petroleum. All these isolates were able to degrade petroleum completely and produced CO2 within 7 days, with a few exceptions for Bacillus sp. and Klebsiella sp. which required 15 days for complete degradation of kerosene. These isolates seemed to have potential for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil and water.
Keywords : Bioremediation, Degradation, Petroleum, Staphylococcus spp., Tolerance
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Abstract: The diurnal variation of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm wavelength and the Angstrom turbidity coefficients (α and β) were derived from direct beam measurements. Results of the measurements showed that the AOD, α, and β variations at different time intervals were mainly influenced by human activities and industrial operations as the day progressed. Hourly variability of AOD (in terms of percent departure from the daily mean) showed that it increases from morning and then reaches its maximum diversion from the mean (25%) at noontime (around 11 AM local time) and then slowly decreases in the afternoon. The wavelength exponent showed an almost similar pattern of diurnal variability as AOD. Its variation ranges at about 6 % above and below the average value of α. However β has a different pattern as compared to AOD and α. It consistently departs above the mean at around 20% in the morning and close to 30% below the mean in the afternoon. Daily values of AOD range from 0.545 to 2.174 with values frequently in the range of 0.5 to 1.5. Daily α was frequently around 1.75 but its values ranged from 0.502 to 3.236. This denoted that fine particles were dominating over coarse particles.
Keywords : Angstrom turbidity coefficients, aerosol, optical depth, wavelength exponent, sunphotometer
 C. W. Chiang, W. N. Chen, W. A. Liang, S. K. Das, J.B. Nee, "Optical Properties of Tropospheric Aerosols Based on Measurements of Lidar, Sunphotometer and Visibility at Chung-Li", Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, 2007, pp. 4128-4137.
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