Version-1 (March–April 2013)
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Abstract: Water Quality Index (WQI) is the rating that reflects the composite influence of different water quality parameters such as pH, TDS, Hardness, Sulphate, Chloride and Turbidity. WQI has been classified as excellent, good, fair, marginal and poor.Thematic maps for the study area were prepared from SOI toposheets and IRS P6 LISS-III image (P100/R67) using Arc GIS 9.2 software.WQI values were added as attribute data and spatial distribution maps for both sub-watersheds were prepared. Critical analysis and comparison of WQI for both sub-watersheds reveals that, during monsoon period, Peruvanthanam has maximum 'excellent' category ie, 47.06% than Valiyathodu sub-watershed ie, 33.33%. 'excellent' ie, 23.52%,'good' ie, 29.41% and 'fair' ie, 47.06% during pre monsoon, 'good' ie, 35.29% and 'fair' ie,17.65% during monsoon and 'excellent' ie, 17.65% 'good' ie, 23.53% and 'fair' ie, 58.82% during post monsoon season. Valiyathodu sub-watershed has 'excellent' ie, 26.67%, 'good' ie, 33.33% and 'fair' ie, 40.00% during pre monsoon. It shows constant value of 40.00% for good category during monsoon and post monsoon season. WQI having fair value of 6.67% and 33.33% for monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively. Marginal category for monsoon and post monsoon season is 20.00% and 26.67% respectively. Hence it is explicit that, in general water quality is good in Peruvanthanam sub-watershed, compared to Valiyathodu sub-watershed.
Keywords - Arc GIS.9.2, IRS P6 LISS-III image (P100/R67), SOI toposheet, Spatial distribution Water Quality Index (WQI)
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Abstract: The high incidence rate of fatal diseases, illnesses and injuries prevalent among industrial workers and the consequent effect requiring days away from work to allow the worker time to recuperate is alarming and counterproductive. This research study was therefore designed to investigate the occupational health practices in manufacturing industries in Adamawa State. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study was conducted among manufacturing industries within Adamawa State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 industrial workers for the study. A 60-item questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Data analysis revealed that a lot of fatal occupational diseases and illnesses exist in the industries; the possible sources of these diseases and illnesses are also numerous; it was also discovered that the level of industries compliance to occupational health regulations is poor with a consequent increase in fatalities. The study also recommended that: Federal Government and other appropriate authorities should ensure, monitoring and strict compliance with the occupational health regulations as contained in the factory Act of 1990 to reduce loss of workdays usually associated with victims of occupational diseases, illnesses and injuries.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Fish Species Diversity of Nagaram Tank of Warangal, Andhra Pradesh|
|Authors||:||Narasimha Ramulu, K, Benarjee, G|
Abstract: The fish production plays a significant role in the human economy. India has vast potential for development of inland fisheries. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristic features and fish fauna diversity of Nagaram tank, located at sub urban of Warangal. It proposed to enhancement of fish production in a sub urban perennial water body in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted during June 2007 to May 2010. The study revealed that different regions of the tank receive variable precipitation and hence meteorological factors governing the physico-chemical properties of the tank which in turn influence planktonic diversity and so that all the physico-chemical and biological factors have direct influence on the fish production. From the present study, it observed that all the physico-chemical parameters are at nearly permissible limit at all the 4 identified stations. It is estimated that the fish fauna of Nagaram tank consists of 30 species belonging to 13 families. Among the collections 13 species of Cypriniformes, order Siluriformes consists of 7 species, Channiformes consists of 03 species, Perciformes 05 species, Osteoglossiformes 01 and order Atheriniformes consists of one species. Therefore, it is suggested that the immediate measures may be taken to avoid further contamination of this tank which has been started contaminated due to anthropological activities. Finally it may be concluded that the Nagaram tank is rich in fish diversity and is still in a position to set a good example of conservation of native fish fauna by the sustainable management practices.
Keywords: - Physico-Chemical Characters, Fish Diversity and Production, Significance and Conservation
 Dua Anish and Chander Prakash (2009): Distribution and abundance of fish populations in Harrike wetland – A, Ramsar site in India. J. Environ. Biol. 30(2), 247-251.
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 Day, F. (1875): The fishes of India, being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and freshwaters of India, Burma and Ceylon., Test and atlas, 4 ports London.
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 Dutta, S.K., Z. Changsan, and M.K. Choudhary. (2001): Application of biological monitoring in water quality assessment, bio-monitoring and zooplankton diversity. (Ed. B.K. Sharma) Department of Zoology. NEHU, Shillong. Pp.164-173.
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 Gadgil, M. (1996): Documenting diversity: an experiment Current Science. (70): 36-44.
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Abstract: Datte-Da-Talab, a subtropical temple pond of Jammu region is situated near Birpur at 32o39′50″ N and 74o57′10″ E just 17 kms from Jammu city. This pond is extensively used by number of pilgrims for drinking, bathing and various religious activities. The study was carried to analyse water for physico-chemical status for a period of one year (May, 2011 to April, 2012) and along with Bacteriological analysis. A total of sixty seven isolates were obtained by using streak plate method and further studied by Gram's staining technique. Among the isolated bacteria 18 were further studied for biochemical analysis and the result revealed the presence of Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia sp., Enterobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. Comparison of bacterial count results, showed that the sediments are more productive source of micro-organisms and contains higher quantity of bacteria than pond water. A good number of bacterial count and the presence of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas indicate significant level of microbial pollution of the pond. During the study period it was found that average value of physical and chemical parameters of pond water and that of sediments support the bacterial growth and flourishment. So, the present research work provided a baseline data to generate better restoration and conservation programme as this pond has lot of religious and therapeutic importance.
Keywords: Bacteriological, Bacterial count, Gram's staining technique, Streak plate method.
 G. Rheinheimer , Aquatic Microbiology, 4th edn. John Wiley and Sons, ( NY, 1991, 363pp).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The effect of Staking and Plant Spacing on the growth and yield of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)|
|Authors||:||Nweke, I.A. Orji E.C. Ijearu, S.I|
Abstract: This study was conducted in Thinker's Corner-Emene Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria to determine the effect of staking and plant spacing on the growth and yield of cucumber. Staked and unstaked and three plant spacing (50cmx30cm, 50cmx40cm and 50cmx50cm) were evaluated. The study was conducted as a 2x3 factorial laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. Treatment means were separated using least significant difference (LSD=0.05). The result generated from the study showed that number of fruits, number of marketable fruits and weight of fruits. Staking had no significant effect on weight of fruits, but showed significant effect on number of branches, number of leaves and vine length decreased as the plant spacing increased from 50cmx30cm to 50cmx40cm. The closest plant spacing (50cmx30cm) recorded the highest value in all the parameters assessed in this trial except for number of flowers, Days to 50% anthesis, length of fruit and weight of fruit. The staked treatment constantly performed better with higher values than the non-staked treatment except for the flowers and number of non-marketable fruits. Hence for maximum production of cucumber staking and closer plant spacing should be adopted.
Keywords: Staking, Plant spacing, Cucumber, Growth, Yield, Soil, Thinker's Corner.
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. Gebologu, N and Saglam.R.(1999). The effect of different of different spacing and mulching materials on the yield and fruit quality of pickling cucumber. Acta Horticulture 579:11 Balkam symposium on vegetable and potatoe.
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. Paulo, S. Lima, S., Jailton, F.R., Jaedson, C.A.M, and Jaeverson D.A.S., (2003). Plant density and fruit density of muskmelon. Rer. Bras frutic Vol.25, No.2. Jaboticabal..
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Mapping The Groundwater Quality in Coimbatorecity, India Based on Physico-Chemical Parameters|
Abstract: Groundwater resources are explored in nature with the development of irrigation activities, industrialization, and urbanization etc. This study focuses on mapping the quality of groundwater using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. Thematic maps were generated from Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using ArcGIS. Physio-chemical parameters of the groundwater samples were collected at predetermined locations., spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Ca, Mg, Total Hardness (TH), Alkalinity, Cl2, Na, SO42- and K of North Coimbatorewere prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. This provides the information about the existing quality of groundwater of the same area for the year2006. In this study, we have analyzed the samples of the same parameters discussed above and have estimated the risk prone levels in Coimbatore. This information can be further used to estimate the effect of water pollution in the regional level.
Keywords: GIS, Ground Water, Chemical Parameters, Mapping.
. Suvarna tikle1, Mohammad JawidSaboori and RushikeshSankpal (2012) Spatial Distribution of Ground water Quality in Some Selected parts of Pune city, Maharashtra, India using GIS, Vol. 7(2), 281-286 (2012)
. Sargaonkar, A. and V. Deshpande (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surfacewater based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, (89): 43-67.
. Khan, F., T. Husain and A. Lumb (2003). Water quality valuation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, (88): 221-242.
. Ferry, L.T., K. Akihiko and M.A. Mohammed Aslam, (2003). A Conceptual Database Design for Hydrology Using GIS.In the Proceedings of Asia Pacific in Association of Hydrology and Water Resources, Japan, Kyoto.
. Carver S., (1991). Integrating multi-criteria evaluation with geographic information systems.International Journal Geographical Information Science 5, 321–339.
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. WHO, Guidelines of drinking water quality Recommendation: the 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organisation. 2 :( 2006).
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Abstract: Coagulation is an important wastewater treatment process used to reduce water turbidity and normally precedes the more complex secondary and tertiary water treatment process. In this study, the effectiveness of a natural coagulant derived from a cactus species for turbidity removal from dye industry effluent. Other parameters such as pH as well as colour were also studied. The amount of cactus added was well correlated with final turbidity of the water. High turbidity removal determined in this study indicates that cactus (opuntia) and water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) has the potential to be utilised for waste water treatment applications.
Key Words: Cactus,Dye industry effluent,pH, Turbidity,water hyacinth
. Edzwald,J.k. (1993)."Coagulation in drinking water treatment: particles,organics,andcoagulants."Water science technology,27(11),21-35.
. Fatoki,O.S and ogunfowokan,A.O. (2002).Effect of coagulant treatment on the metal composition of raw water." Water SA,28(3),293-298.
. Kang,M.,kamei,T. and Magara,y. (2003)."Comparing polyaluminium chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal."Water research, 37(17),4171-4179.
. Liew , A.G.,Noor,M.J.M.M. and Ng, Y.M. (2004). "Coagulation of turbid waters using extraction of long bean."Malaysian journal of science, 23,185-191.
. Ndabigengesere, A.,Narasiah,K.S. and Talbot,B.G. (1995)."Active agents and mechanisms of coagulation of turbid waters using moringaolifera." Water research ,29(2),703-710.
. Ndabigengesere,A. and Narasiah. K.S.(1998)."Quality of water treated by coagulation using moringaolifera seeds" water research,32(3)781-791.
. Muyibi,S.A. and Evison,L.M.(1995)."Optimizing physical parameters affecting coagulation of turbid water with moringaolifera seeds." Water research,29 (12),2689-2695.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Hexavalent Chromium in Tannery Solid Waste Based Poultry Feed in Bangladesh and Its Transfer to Food Chain|
|Authors||:||L. T. Mazumder, S. Hasan,* M. L. Rahman|
Abstract: Solid tannery waste from the Hazaribagh area in the outskirts of Dhaka city is used as the principal component of poultry feed, fish feed and fertilizers. Although total chromium content in tannery waste based poultry feed has been determined previously, no studies appear to have been made on the hexavalent chromium which is much more toxic than trivalent chromium and is a carcinogen. The USEPA method 3060A which involves alkaline digestion to prohibit inter-conversion of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) has been used to solubilize chromium from the samples. The well-established spectrophotometric method (EPA method 7196A) has been employed to measure Cr (VI) concentrations at 540 nm in different samples. A total of 42 samples including solid leather waste, poultry feed, chicken livers and eggs were analyzed. Out of 5 skin-cuts two have shown the presence of Cr (VI). The amounts of Cr (VI) that have been found in 6 of the poultry samples are significantly higher (except one) than those found in skin-cut samples. About 25% of the chicken liver has been found to contain Cr (VI). It is reasonable to assume that this has come from the poultry feed.
Keywords: Hexavalent chromium, tannery waste, poultry feed, Hazaribagh, EPA method 3060A and 7196A.
. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR), Toxicological profile for chromium, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Atlanta, GA, 2000).
. A.K. Alam, and M. Nizamul, Export of Bangladesh Leather: Present Performance and Future Prospect (Dhaka Export Promotion Bureau, 1998). (http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/meetings/bangkok5/b5Draft%20case%20study%20Bangladesh.pdf).
. H. Alam, Toxic Poultry Feed Poses Health Risk (Dhaka, July 24, 2010).
. (http:// www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=147986).
. B. Basaran, M. Ulaş, O. B Behzat, and A. Aslan, Distribution of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in chrome tanned leather, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 15, 2008, 511-514.
. M.J. Ferreira, M.F. Almeida, and T. Pinto, Influence of Temperature and Holding Time on Hexavalent Chromium Formation during Leather Combustion, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists & Chemists, 83, 1999, 135.
. C. Hauber and H. P. Germann, Investigations on a possible formation and avoidance of chromate in leather, World Leather, 13 (5), 2000, 38.
. M. Hossain, M.M. Monir, T. Rezwan, A.M. Haque, U.L. Kazi, M.S. Islam, and S.F. Elahi, Heavy metal concentration in tannery solid wastes used as poultry feed and the ecotoxicological consequences, Bangladesh Journal of Science and Industrial Resources, 42(4), 2007, 397-416.
. USEPA, Method 7196A, Chromium Hexavalent (Colorimetric), Test Method for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods (SW 846, 3rd ed. Washington D.C. 1995b).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Turmeric Oil on Reproductive Efficiency of Adult Male Rats Exposed to Potassium Dichromate|
|Authors||:||Z. Kh. Jeber, F. Kh. Tawfeek|
Abstract: This study conducted to investigate the effects of Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and Turmeric Oil (TO) on reproductive efficiency of adult male rats. Twenty four male rats aged 100 days divided randomly into 4 groups. G1 received 1 ml of dimethyle sulfoxide (DMSO) 5% orally as control, G2 received K2Cr2O7 (24 mg/kg orally), G3 received TO dissolve in DMSO 5% (8.5 mg/kg orally) and G4 received both K2Cr2O7 + TO (24 mg/kg + 8.5 mg/kg orally ½ h in between). K2Cr2O7 treatment revealed significant decrease in body weight, total sperm count, percentage of live sperm, serum Glutathione (GSH), thickness of seminiferous epithelia and number of stage VII cells (spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatids) accompanied with significant increase in epididymal, seminal vesicle weight and percentage of dead and abnormal sperms and serum Malondialdehyde (MDA). TO treatment show significant increase in body, testes, epididymal, prostate weight, total sperm count, percentage of live sperms, serum GSH and Testosterone concentration, diameter and thickness of seminiferous tubules and cells number in stage VII with significant decrease in percentage of abnormal and dead sperms, serum MDA, while treatment with both K2Cr2O7 and TO show improvement in the parameters under study. In conclusion, K2Cr2O7 has dangerous effects on reproductive efficiency which have been improved by TO.
Keywords: Turmeric Oil, Potassium Dichromate (VI), Adult Male Rats.
 Ammon, HP. and Wahl, MA. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta. Med. 1991, 57: 1-7.
 Agarwal, A.; Gupta, S. and Sharma, RK. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2005 3: 3-28.
 Apisariyakul, A.; Vanittanakom, N. and Buddhassukh, D. Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). J. Ethanopharmacol. 1995, 49: 163-169.
4] Arora, R.; Basu, N. and Kapoor, V. Anti- inflammatory studies on curcuma longa. (turmeric J. indian): Med. Res. 1971, 59: 1289-1295.
 Aruldhas, MM.; Subramanian, S.; Sekar, P.; Vengatesg, G.; Chandrahasan, G.; Govindarajulu, P. and Akbarsha, MA. Chronic chromium exposure-induced changes in testicular histoarchitecture are associated with oxidative stress: study in a non human primate (Macaca radiate Geoffroy): Hum. Repro. 2005, 20: 2801- 2813.
 Ashry, KM. Biochemical studies on turmeric powder with special reference to antioxidant effect an possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Assiut Vet. Med. J. 2003, 99: 89-103.
 Bagchi, D.; Stohs, SJ.; Downs, BW.; Bagchi, M. and Preuss, HG. Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium. Toxicology. 1995, 180: 5-22.
 Bonde, JP. Occupational risk to male reproduction. G Ital Lav Erg. 2002, 112-117.
 Bonde, JP. The risk of male sub fecundity attributable to welding Studies of: Childhood malignancy, pregnancy outcome, semen quality and adverse infertility. Int.J.Androl. 1993, 16: 1-29.
 Bourne, KZ.; Bourne, N.; Reising, SF. and Standberry, LR. Plant products as topical microbicide herbs simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Res. 1999, 42: 219-226
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Seed Characteristics and Proximate Analysis of Wild Castor Plant from Sokoto State|
|Authors||:||Aisha U, B. L Aleiro, K. Shehu,Hauwa B., Sumayya B. I.,Shuaibu M. M.B. Abubakar|
Abstract: In this study, castor seeds were collected fromWamakko local government Area of Sokoto and the seeds were subjected to different studies which included seed characteristics, proximate analysis and mineral composition. The typical castor seed in Sokoto was found to have a range of 1- 8 bunch, each bunch contains several pods ranging from 30- 56 with an average of 43 pods per bunch. The proximate analysis of the seed was found to contain 28% carbohydrate, 11% protein, 3.5% ash, 1.78% nitrogen, 1.0 crude fibre respectively. The paper concludes that Sokoto state has good potential for large cultivation of castor plant and consequently joining the castor seed market.
Keywords; castor seeds, proximate analysis, seed characteristics, mineral composition
. Ahn, Y.J, Vang, L. Mckeon, T. and Chen G. Q (2007); High frequency plant regeneration Adventitious shoot formation in castor (Ricinus cummunis) L In vitro cellular developmental biology plant; 43(1); 9-15..
. Black, C. A. (1965). Methods of soil Analysis Agronomy part 2 America, Soc, Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin. 14-15.
. Das, S. C. Isichei, C.O., Okwuasaba, F. K.andUguru, V. E.(2000); Clinical Pathological and toxicological studies of the effects of RICOM- 1013 - Journal of Ricinus communisVar Minor on Women. Volunteer on Rodents. phytother Res, 14 (1) 15-19.
. Fakhri, Z. I. (1989); Mean diameter in skin test for castor bean extract. In castor bean allergic workers of eastern Sudan Journal of Occupational Medicine; 39 (4): 144 -146.
. Iyothi, M., Thatikunta, R. and Akuia, B. (2006); Identification of Castor, Ricinus communis L, Genotypes for Rainfed Conditions. Oilseeds Reseach; 23 (1): 9-15.
. Mensah, B. and Orchran, (2005) Physicochemical Characteristics of Castor Oil From Local Wild Castor Plant in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Science. Accra. 45, 41-44.
. Oyenuga, V. A. (1978) Nigerian's Food and Feeding Stuff, University Press Ibadan, Nigeria PP 27-33.
. Redmond, W. A. (2008); Castor oil Microsoft Encanta (DVD) Microsoft Corporation,
. Weis, E, A (1991) Castor Sesame and SafflowerLeornardo Hill BooksInternational Textbooks Co., LTD London. 21-24
. Willcox, Michael (2000); Soap in Hilda Butler; Poachers, perfumes, and Soaps. (10th edition). Dordrecht; Kluwer Academic publishers' pp 453.
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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementing Non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes and prebiotics alone or in combination to sub-optimal energy corn soybeanbased broiler diets on performance. 150 day old broiler chicks were randomly distributed in to five experimental groups, six replicates per group and five birds per replicate. A standard diet (SD) and a basal diet (BD) (225 kcal/kg ME less) was formulated for prestarter, starter and finisher periods. Supplementing BD with Non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes with or without prebiotics had no effect on total body weight gain and feed intake. FCR improved with addition of NSP enzymes alone or in combination with prebiotics. The retention of OM, CP and GE was significantly (P<0.05) improved with addition of NSP enzymes along with prebiotics. NSP enzymes alone and or in combination with prebiotics to BD reduced (P<0.05) intestinal pH, viscosity, cost of feeding and cost of production per kg live weight gain compared to BD and SD.
Key words: Non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes, prebiotics, weight gain, FCR, viscosity.
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