Version-1 (March–April 2013)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Cereal - Pulse Fermentations Using Soyabean - An Innovative Experimentation|
|Authors||:||Subhashree S, Pooja Patel|
Abstract: Fermented foods have been consumed by mankind since time immemorial. Fermentation is known to improve the nutrient quantity and quality of the foods. Cereal pulse mix is useful in enhancing the protein quality. This study was done to develop innovative fermented cereal pulse dishes using soyabean. Soya bean was fermented with four cereals namely Rice, Wheat, Ragi and Oats in the cereal pulse ratio 70:30. Three standard Indian fermented foods namely dosa, Ildi and pakora were chosen for experimentation due to its familarity. Four different cereals in combination with Soyabean was fermented and prepared into the three dish totalling to 12 dishes. Acceptability of the dishes was tested using organoleptic analysis.Chemical score and Net Dietary Protein calorie % was computed to analyse the protein quality of the preparations. Rice- soya combination had maximum acceptability for dosa and idli preparation. Wheat-soya combination was the most accepted pakora preparation. Lysine was the most limiting amino acid in all the dishes. The NDPCal% of all the variations was above the recommended 8% indicating its ability in supporting growth especially in children and adolescents. Hence incorporation of Soya based fermented foods in Indian diet is a healthy and innovative substitute that will aid in growth promotion.
Keyboard: Chemical score, Fermented foods, NDP Cal%, Protein Quality, Soyabean.tor.
(Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988)
 B. Roy, C. Prakash, N. A. Farooquee and B.S. Majila, Indigenous Fermented Food and Beverages: A Potential for Economic
Development of the High Altitude Societies in Uttaranchal, Journal of Human Ecology ,15(1),2004, 45-49.
 K.S. Sanjeev and D.K. Sandhu , Fermentation of Idli: Effects of changes in raw material and physico-chemical conditions, Journal
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 J.H.Hule, Nature, Composition, and Utilization of Grain Legumes, Proceedings of a Consultants Meeting, ICRISAT, Andhra
Pradesh, India,1991, 11-30
 FAO/WHO/UNU Energy and
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Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify causal factors which determine the rate of housing deterioration particularly in high density and slum areas of Nigerian cities. Two high density areas, namely, Asata and Ogui New Layout and one slum area, Obiagu, all in Enugu City were used for the study. 257 landlords randomly selected from these areas participated in this study by serving as respondents. Structured questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection. Multiple Linear, Regression Analysis (MRA) was used in data analysis. Findings indicate that out of the 7 suspected factors, 5 of them, namely, high occupancy ratio (0.968), number of non-residential rooms (0.875), Landlord's level of education (0.675), Landlord's household size (0.593) and number of tenants (0.406) correlate significantly with housing deterioration. Therefore, the more these identified factors are combined in a dwelling unit, the faster the rate of deterioration of that dwelling. It is then recommended that governments at all levels should give adequate enabling environment to municipal councils through Town Planning Authorities to enforce acceptable occupancy ratios and codes. Similarly, the issue of family planning should be pursued with more vigor and determination to the extent that offenders could be sanctioned and prosecuted. Further more, landlords' education should be made mandatory and to be extended to include information communication technology (ICT) to enable them link up with the outside world for greater awareness and networking. The study then concluded that though the study was based in Enugu city but the findings are germane to other Nigerian as well as third world cities.
Keywords: Deterioration, housing, household, landlord, tenants and occupancy.
 Agbola, T. (1985), "Property Taxation", Paper Presented at a Seminar on Local Sources of Finance for Local Government, ASCON, Lagos.
 Bascom, W. (1975), Urbanization Among the Yorubas, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. IX, No. 5, pp. 446-454.
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 Onibokun, P. (1985), "Nigerian Cities: Their Rehabilitation and Redevelopment", Housing in Nigeria (A Book of Readings), Onibokun, P. (ed.), NISER (Pub.), Ibadan, Nigeria.
 Okeke, D. C. (2002), Environmental and Urban Renewal Strategies, (Theoretical and Analytical Framework), Institute for Development Studies (Pub.), Enugu, Nigeria.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Roadside Plants as Bio-indicators of Urban Air Pollution|
|Authors||:||A.P. Deepalakshmi, H. Ramakrishnaiah*, Y.L. Ramachandra ,R.N. Radhika|
Abstract: This paper describes air pollution tolerance among roadside plants exposed to varying degrees of vehicular pollutants. Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of 10 selected wild plant species was carried out to assess their response to ambient levels of air pollutants along the busy roadways of Bangalore. Four parameters namely total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH of leaf extract and relative water content were determined and computed together to signify air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of plants. The observed significant reduction in total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and relative water content showed inverse relationship with traffic density. Similarly, pH of leaf extract followed an exponential decrease with increase in traffic density and drifted towards acidic range. Comparison of APTI values from control to polluted sites revealed maximum reduction in Bougainvillea spectabilis while least change was noted in Peltophorumpterocarpum. Among the plants studied maximum net per cent reduction of APTI over control was seen in Bougainvillea spectabilis and Ageratum conyzoides and are considered to be sensitive species. While Peltophorumpterocarpum and Portulacaoleraceaeare tolerant species since they have shown least per cent reduction in APTI.
Keywords: APTI, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content, Bougainvillea spectabilis
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 A. Rai, K. Kulshreshtha, P.K. Srivastava, and C.S. Mohanty, Leaf surface structure alterations due to particulate pollution in some common plants, Environmentalist, 30, 2009, 18-23.
 A.K. Dwivedi, and B.D. Tripathi, Pollution tolerance and distribution pattern of plants in surrounding area of coal-fired industries, Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(2), 2007, 257-263.
 A.K. Tripathi, and M. Gautam, Biochemical parameters of plant as indicators of air pollution, Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(1), 2007, 127-132.
 S.R. Oliva, B.V. Castrillon, M. Dolores, and M. Alvarez, Nerium oleander as a means to monitor and minimize the effects of pollution, Bocconea, 21, 2007, 379-384.
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 S.K. Singh, D.N. Rao, M. Agrawal, J. Pandey, and Narayan, Air pollution tolerance index of plants, Journal of Environmental Management, 32, 1991, 45-55.
 S.H. Raza, and M.S.R. Murthy,Air pollution tolerance index of certain plants of Nacharam industrial area, Hyderabed, Indian Journal of Botany, 11(1), 1988, 91-95.
 D.I. Arnon, Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris, Plant Physiology, 24, 1949, 1-15.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Role Of Vincristine In Treatment Of Refractory Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (Itp)|
|Authors||:||Ahmad F. Thabet, Medhat A Saleh, Mostafa M. Sayed|
Abstract: Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a condition associated with significant morbidity; however the management options for refractory ITP are often unsatisfactory despite various lines of treatment including splenectomy. The comparison of vincristine costs with other lines of treatment as intravenous immunoglobulin revealed many folds lower costs of vincristine. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the role of vincristine in treating (splenectomized and non splenectomized) refractory ITP patients who are resistant to corticosteroids therapy, to assess the use of vincristine in clinical situations requiring increase in the platelet count as a preoperative management and to evaluate the long term (6 months) follow up effect after stoppage of vincristine treatment in refractory ITP patients.
 Ahn Y, Harrington W, Seelman R and Eytel C : Vincristine therapy of idiopathic and secondary thrombocytopenias. New England Journal of Medicine. 1974; 291, 376.
 Alhossain Khalafallah, Zafreen Rahman, Kath Ogden and Terry Hannan :Successful Treatment with Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist in Avoiding Splenectomy for Patients with Chronic Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenia. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2012; 4(1): e2012003
 BETHAN P AND JAMES B. : REFRACTORY IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: CURRENT STRATEGIES FOR INVESTIGATION AND MANAGEMENT .BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY . 2008; VOLUME 143, ISSUE 1, PAGES 16–26, OCTOBER .
 Bourgeois E, Caulier MT, Delarozee C, Brouillard M, Bauters F and Fenaux P:Long-term follow-up of chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura refractory to splenectomy: a prospective analysis. Br J Haematol. 2003 Mar;120(6):1079-88.
 British Committee for Standards in Haematology General Haematology Task Force: Guidelines for the investigation and management of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults, children and in pregnancy. Br J Haematol. 2003; 120: 574-96.
 Burton I , Roberts B , Child J, Montgomery D and Raper C : Responses to vincristine in refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Medical Journal .1976; 2, 918 .
 Cervantes C., Rozman E., Feliu E., Montserrat C., Diumenjo A. And Gran4ena : Low-dose vincristine in the treatment of corticosteroid-refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in non-splenectomized patients. Postgraluate Medical Journal .1980; 56, 711-714.  Cindy N , Wendy L , Mark C, Alan C, Lawrence S and Mark A :The American Society of Hematology 2011 evidence-based practice guideline for immune thrombocytopenia. Blood. April 21, 2011; vol. 117 no. 16 4190-4207
 Cooper, N., Woloski, B.M., Fodero, E.M., Novoa, M.V., Leber, M., Beer, J.H. & Bussel, J.B: Does treatment with intermittent infusions of anti-D allow a proportion of adults with recently diagnosed immune thrombocytopenic purpura to avoid splenectomy? Blood. 2002; 99, 1922–1927.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable Negative Air Ion Generator|
|Authors||:||V. S. Sawant|
Abstract: Portable negative air ion generator has been designed and tested. This device generates continuous emission of unipolar (negative) ions and it was evaluated by investigating its ability to remove respirable particles such as different smoke verities (mosquito coil smoke, cigarette smoke, petrol smoke) from indoor air environment. The experiment was carried out in closed glass container, decay rate for particle concentration were obtained in presence and in absence of negative air ions. The particle removal efficiency was obtained and it can be observed that removal efficiency was highest for petrol smoke as compared to cigarette/mosquito coil smoke. The experiment confirms removal of about 95% respirable particles from indoor air in addition to the natural decay effect.
Keywords: Negative Air Ion Generator, Indoor Air, Particle Concentration, Particle Removal Efficiency.
 Bigu, J. On the e2ects of a negative ion-generator and a mixing fan on the plate-out of radon decay products in a radon box. Health Physics, 1983 , 44(3), 259–266.
 Bohgard, M., & Eklund, P. Effect of an ionizer on sub-micron particles in indoor air. Journal of Aerosol Science, 1998 , 29, S1313–S1314.
 Grabarczyk, Z. Effectiveness of indoor air cleaning with corona ionizers. Journal of Electrostatics, 2001, 51–52, 278–283.
 Grinshpun.S.A.,Mainelis.G.,Reponen.T.,Willeke.K.,Trunov.m.A.and Adhikaty.A. Effect of wearable ionizers on the concentration of respirable airborne particles and Microorganisms. Proceedings of the European Aerosol Conference, Leipzig, germany, j. aerosol Sci., 2001,32 (Suppl. 1), S335-S336.
 Grinshpun, S.A., Mainelis, G., Trunov, M., Adhikari, A.,Reponen, T. and Willeke, K. Evaluation of Ionic Air Purifiers for reducing an Aerosol Exposure in Confined Indoor Spaces. Indoor Air , 2005, 15: 235–245.
 Harrison, R.G. Ionisers and electrical aerosol removal, Proceedings of 10th Annual Conference, The Aerosol Society, Swansea, UK, 38-40. J. Aerosol Sci., 1996, 27, S191-S192
 Hopke, P. K., Montassier, N., & Wasiolek, P. Evaluation of the e2ectiveness of several air cleaners for reducing the hazard from indoor radon progeny. Aerosol Science and Technology, 1993, 19, 268–278.
 Khan, A., Sapra, B. K., Sawant, V. D., Shaikh, A. N., & Mayya, Y. S., Behaviour of cigarette smoke in a test enclosure. In Bulletin of Indian aerosol science and technology association, 2000, Vol.13 (pp.160–163).
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 Lee, B.U., Yermakov, M. and Grinshpun, S.A. Removal of Fine and Iltrafine Particles from Indoor Air Environments by the Unipolar Ion Emission. Atmos. Environ. 2004, 38: 4815–4823.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Nutrient Concentration on Biochemical Characteristics of Trapa natans a Macrophytic species of Mansbal Lake,Kashmir,India|
|Authors||:||M.A.Tantary, S. K. Rafiq|
Abstract: The effect of nutrient concentration on Biochemical Characteristics of Trapa natans a macrophytic species of Mansbal Lake was carried out for a period of one year. The observations indicate that the Kondabal Area (Site IV) of the Manasbal Lake is more polluted due to influx of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff as compared to the other sites. The increased nutrient load at this site is also indicated by the bio-chemical analysis of Trapa natans where its components viz, Chlorophyll a ( 2.4 - 3.5 μg/mL), Chlorophyll b (0.3-1.2 μg/mL), Total Chlorophyll (2.6-4.1 μg/mL), carotenoids (0.3-0.6 μg/mL), proteins (0.3-0.6 mg/mL),amino acids(3.5-.7 mg/mL), Starch(10.0-11 mg/mL) and free sugars(11.6-13.0 mg/mL) showed a gradual increase in their concentration from Site I to Site II to Site IV. No plant was found at Site III due to excessive depth where growth of Trapa natans is not possible.
 Agarwal, S.B.; Agarwal. And Nandi, P. K. (1998) Impact of cement kiln emissions on vegetation.An ecological assessment Indian Journal of Environment Health, 30(4): 340-347 Duxbury, A. C. and Yentech, C. S. (1956). Plankton pigment monographs. J. Mar Res.15: 19-101.
 Gainey, P.L. and Lord, T.H., 1952. Microbiology of Water and Sewage. Prentice-Hall, New York.
 Gardner, W.S., Nalepa, T.F., Quigley, M.A., and Malezyk, J.M., 1981. Release of phosphorus by certain benthic invertebrates. Can J. Fish. Auqut. Sci., 38: 978-981.
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 Hujare, M. S. (2008): Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters in the perennial tank of Talsande, Maharashtra. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 18(3): 233- 242.
 Kapoor, A. N and Das,A.G 1997 Principles of Physical Geography (New Delhi: S Chand and Company Ltd.).
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 Kulsherestha, S.K, Tiwari, A., George, M.P., Saxena, R.., Joshi M., and Shrivastava, M.1989. Studies with special reference to organic pollution. J. Hydrobiol., 5: 43-47.
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Abstract: Saponin, a secondary plant metabolite acts as both antinutrient and antioxidant in humans. It is usually affected by different processing methods, majorly heating. Though, vegetables are usually subjected to processing before consumption, however, recent interest in vegetable juice is gaining ground among the populace without consideration to the level of antinutrient and other toxic constituents that may be concentrated by juicing. Some selected vegetables, commonly consumed in south western Nigeria were evaluated for saponins content in the fresh, blanched and juiced forms using standard laboratory procedures. Variation exists in saponin content of vegetable and their products. Highest value of saponin was observed as follows; fresh Teliferia occidetalis 1332.70mg/100g; blanched Teliferia occidentalis 918.77mg/100g and juice Manihot esculenta 2286.82mg/100g dry weight. While lowest was observed in Talinum triangulare 123.82mg/100g; launae taraxacifolia 141.75mg/100 and Basella rubra 132.03mg/100g dry weight respectively. Observations showed that blanching and juicing affected the saponin content of the vegetables differently, while the blanching reduced the content of saponin in most of the vegetables, juicing, however, concentrated some vegetables and reduced some. Also, saponin content of vegetables varies and affected by different processing methods. Thus, vegetable juice must be taken with caution by people vulnerable to saponin.
Keywords: Vegetable, saponin, blanched, fresh and antinutrients
 Jan Alexander, Guðjón Atli Auðunsson, Diana Benford, Andrew Cockburn, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Eugenia Dogliotti, Alessandro Di Domenico, María Luisa Férnandez-Cruz, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Peter Fürst, Corrado Galli, Philippe Grandjean, Jadwiga Gzyl, Gerhard Heinemeyer, Niklas Johansson, Antonio Mutti, Josef Schlatter, Rolaf van Leeuwen, Carlos Van Peteghem, Philippe
Verger. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the European Commission on Saponins in Madhuca Longifolia L. as undesirable substances in animal feed. The EFSA Journal (2009) 979, 1-36.
 Apers S, Baronikova S, Sindambiwe JB, Witvrouw M, De Clercq E, Vanden Berghe D, Van Marck E, Vlietinck A & Pieters L (2000) Antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities of triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata: establishment of structure-activity relationships. Planta Medica 67, 528–532.
 Delmas F, Di Giorgio C, Elias R, Gasquet M, Azas N, Mshvildadze V, Dekanosidze G, Kemertelidze E & Timon-David P (2000) Antileishmanial activity of three saponins isolated from ivy, alpha-hederin, beta-hederin and hederacolchiside A(1), as compared with their action on mammalian cells cultured in vitro. Planta Medica 66, 343–347.
 Oda K, Matsuda H, Murakami T, Katayama S, Ohgitani T & Yoshikawa M (2000) Adjuvant and haemolytic activities of 47 saponins derived from medicinal and food plants. Biological Chemistry 381, 67–74.
 Park HJ, Kwon SH, Lee JH, Lee KH, Miyamoto K & Lee KT (2001) Kalopanaxsaponin A is a basic saponin structure for the anti-tumor activity of hederagenin monodesmosides. Planta Medica 67, 118–121.
 Hu J, Lee SO, Hendrich S & Murphy PA (2002) Quantification of the group B soyasaponins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 2587–2594.
 Matsuura M (2001) Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the riskof cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nutrition 131, 1000S–1005S.
 Yoshiki Y, Kudou S & Okubo K (1998) Relationship between chemical structures and biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from soybean (Review). Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 62, 2291–2299.
 Yeung, N., Botvinick, M. M, Cohen, J. D., The neural bais of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error related negativity. Psychol. Rev. 111, 931 – 959.
 Makkar HPS & Becker K (1996) Effect of Quillaja saponins on in vitro rumen fermentation. In Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture, pp. 377–386 [GR Waller and Y Yamasaki, editors]. New York: Plenum Press..
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Abstract: Oil pollution and water deficit are threat to the environment and can impose serious problems in crop yield and productivity. Early detection and discrimination between these stress agents are important to facilitate timely delivery of remedial measures. Remote sensing technology has this potential but there is poor understanding about the ability of the combined spectral and thermal information for early detection and discrimination between oil and water deficit-induced stress in plants. In order to understand this, in a glasshouse, pot grown maize was treated with oil, water deficit and combined oil and water deficit. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every 2 to 3 days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our result showed that stress caused by oil pollution can be detected spectrally before visual stress symptoms are observed in maize but it was a poor indicator of water deficit stress. On the contrary, leaf absolute temperature can indicate water deficit stress prior to visual stress symptoms, although it may be difficult to discriminate between oil and water deficit stress using this measure. Based on our findings, we conclude that the combination of hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing has potential in the early detection and discrimination between oil and water deficit stress in maize.
Keywords – Oil pollution, Spectral reflectance, thermography, Water deficit, Maize.
 Arderson, J. E., and Perry, J. E. 1996, Characterization of wetland plant stress using leaf spectral reflectance: Implication of wetland remote sensing. Wetlands, 16, pp. 477-487.
 Bacour, C., Jacquemoud, S., Tourbier, Y., Dechmbre, M., and Frangi, J. P., 2002, Design and analysis of numerical experiments to compare four canopy reflectance models. Remote Sensing of Environment, 79, pp. 72-83.
 Barnes, E. M., Clarke, T. R., and Richards, S. E., 2000, Coincident detection of crop water stress, nitrogen status and canopy density using ground based multi-spectral data. In: Proceedings of the 5th International conference on Precision Agriculture, Bloomington, MN, USA.
 Beaumont, P., 1995, Reflectance foliaire et acclimatation à un deficit hydique: cas des feuilles de tournesol. PhD Thesis, Ecophysiologie végétale et Télédétection, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France, pp. 129.
 Blackburn, G. A., 1998a, Spectral indices for estimating photosynthetic pigment concentrations: a test using Senescent Tree Leaves. International Journal of Remote Sensing 19, pp. 657-675.
 Blackburn, G. A., 1998b, Quantifying chlorophylls and carotenoids from leaf to canopy scales: an evaluation of some hyperspectral approaches. Remote Sensing of Environment, 66, pp. 273-285.
 Bowman, W. D., 1989, The relationship between leaf water status, gas exchange, and spectral reflectance in cotton leaves. Remote Sensing of Environment, 30, pp.49-255.
 Boyer, M, Miller, J., Belanger, M., Hare, E., and Wu, J., 1988, Senescence and spectral reflection in leaves of northern pin oak (Uerus palustirs Muenchh.) Remote Sensing of Environment, 25, pp. 71-87.
 Carter, G. A., 1993, Responses of leaf reflectance to plant stress. American Journal
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Abstract: Information management has become a very important topic in recent times and technological advancement depends more and more on the amount of information that is available in real time. As the popular saying goes information is power. This is why investment in the information networking of an economy cannot be over flogged. Great nations of today are characterized by the amount of information they harness and how well and efficient this information is being dispersed to its citizens.
Keywords – Mast, Distribution, Zoom Mobile and MTN, Map, Query.
 Chan, T. O. et al (1997): Data Structure and Application Issues in 3D Geographical Information Systems.
 Demers, M. M. (1997): Fundamentals of Geographic Information System.
 Egyedi, T. M (2001): ―IPR Paralysis in Standardization: Is Regulatory Symmetry Desirable?‖ IEEE Communications Magazine, April 2001, pp. 108–144.
 Esri (2006): GIS for Telecommunication, ESRI Press, California USA.
 Galati, R.S (2006): Geographic Information Systems Demystified. Artech House, London.
 Godin, L (2001): GIS in Telecommunications, ESRI Press, California USA.
 Gunnar, H (1998): GSM Networks – Protocols, Terminology and Implementation, Artech House, London.
 Jones N.V (2005): Telecommunications Management. Colorado Reader, USA.
 Moore S. M., Pritsky N.T., RiggS C. and Southwick P.V. (2002): Telecommunications: A Beginner's Guide, McGraw Hill, USA
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Abstract: Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis of the two water falls were carried out. The results obtained were compared with EPA and WHO standards for drinking and recreational water. The water sources were within the standard set for pH, Total dissolved solids, Total solid, acidity, chloride and iron contents. For bacteriological analysis, the two samples did not comply with bacteriological standards because the total coliforms could higher than 1,300 MPN/ml, Vibrio cholerae counts and Salmonella – Shigella counts were also high. The pathogens in water for drinking and recreational purposes may pose a threat in public health and even other microorganisms that may also be present. The pathogens and other microbes are all concerned in gastro-intestinal water source diseases that usually affect man and aquatic lives at large.
Key words: Drinking water, Recreational, Waterfall, Pathogens.
 I.O. Okonka, T.A Ogunnusi and M.C Olasogba. Comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of different water samples used for processing frozen sea foods in Ijora-Olopa, Lagos state, Nigeria. Africa journal of biotechnology, 7 (16): 2902-2907
 J.M. Highes and J.P Koplan saving lives through global safe water. Journal of engineering infectious disease 11(10); (2005), 1636-16377.
 WHO, 2004. Water sanitation and Health programme managing water in the home. Accelerated health gains from improved water sources. World Health organization. www.who.int.
 A. Lamikanra. Essential microbiology for students and practioners of pharmacy, medicine and microbiology. 2nd edition. Ankara Books (2).
 O.O Dada, C.A Okuofu and E. Obele. Fecal pollution of well water in Zaria city, Nigeria, savannah.
 Food and Agriculture organization (FAO). Chemical analysis manual for food and water, 5th Ed. FAO ROME (1997), 1:20-26.
 C.C. Bezuidenhout, N. Mthenbu, T. Puckree and J. Lin. Microbiological evaluation of the mhlathize river kwazuln-nation (RSA). Water S.A (2002). 28:281-286.
 Standing Committee of Analysis. The microbiology of drinking water. Part 1- water quality and public health methods for the examination of water and associated materials. Environment agency (2002). http://w.w.w.environment.
 EPA. US. Environment protection agency, safe drinking water act amendment (2002). http://w.w.w.epa.gov/safe water /mcl.ml.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Inhibitory Effect of Pure Honey on Microorganisms Isolated from Wound|
|Authors||:||T.P. Olakunle, E.B. Akinro, J.O. Agbolade, A.S. Yoyinoye, M.A. Ghazali, S.S. Oladeji|
Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of pure honey against some isolated microorganisms from untreated infected wounds. Also, to compare with the effectiveness of various antibiotics. The isolates are four bacteria and two fungi. The bacteria are: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and the fungi are: Blastomyces dermatitidis and Candida albicans. All the microorganisms were cleared off with an excellent clear zone of inhibition including the problematic one in wound healing (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) when compared with the antibiotic sensitivity patterns in which majority are resistant. The results from this study showed the following microbial counts: Fungi; Wound A (2.67 x 10-5cfu/ml), Wound B (3.33 x 10-5cfu/ml). Bacteria: Wound A (4 x 10-5cfu/ml), Wound B (4.33 x 10-5cfu/ml).
Key words: Honey, Wound, inhibition
 Jane E. Phillips (2002): Encyclopaedia of Nursing & Allied health available from http//www.woundhealsoc.org
 Robson M.C (1997). Wound infection. A failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria. Surg. Clin North Am. 77:637 – 650
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 Bowler, P.G., M Duerden, B.I and D.G. Armstrong (2001): Wound Microbiology and Associated Approaches to Wound Management. Vol. 14 (2) Pp 18
 Okesola, A.O. (2008) African Journal of Medical Sciences vol 37 (3): Pp 261-264
 Codex. A. Limentarius Commission, author, Codex Standards for Sugar (honey). Supplement 2 to Codex Alimentarius Volume III. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization; (1989).
 Peter. B. Olaitan, Olufemi. E. Adeleke and Iyabo. O. Ola (2007). African Health Sciences; Honey; a reservoir of microorganisms and inhibitory agent for microbes. Vol. 7(3): Pp159 – 165.
 Stroke E. S., Ridway, G. I, Wren G. M. Clinical Microbiology 7th edition. Ondon: Arnold, (1993): Pp 20-30
 Subramanyam. M. Tropical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br. J. Surg. (1991); Vol 78: Pp 497 -498
 Hamid. S, Saeed. M. A. Bee Keeping. Hamlard Medical (1991): Vol 34: Pp 94 – 95
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Abstract: Studies were carried out to identify pathogens and toxins associated with the black tar disease of yam foliage (Yam anthracnose) in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Infected yam leaves and stems showing symptoms were collected from farms and cultured for isolation of causal organisms. Pure cultures of isolates were obtained using single spore method. Toxin extractions were done using 100ml of ethyl acetate in separating funnels. These were dried using a vacuum rotator evaporator. Partial purification of the toxin was done with the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates. Results showed the predominant presence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. TLC quantification in four solvent systems suggests that the toxin produced is a glycoprotein.
Keywords: Black tar disease of yam, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Glycoprotein, TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography), Toxins.
 M.M. Abang, P. Hoffman, S. Winter, K.R. Green and G.A. Wolf, Vegetative compatibility among isolates of Colletotrichum gloeoesporioides from yam (Dioscorea spp) in Nigeria, Journal of phytopathology (2004) In press.
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 C.N. Akem, Yam die-back and it's principal cause in the belt of Nigeria, Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 2, 1999, 1106-1109.  J.A. Bailey, and M.J. Jegger, Colletotrichum biology pathology and control (Wallingford, United Kingdom: CAB International, 1992).
 C. Joseph, J. Guarro, and J. Gene, Molecular and Morphological identification of Colletotrichum species of clinical interest, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42, 2004, 2450-2454.
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 M.M. Abang, S. Winter, K.R. Green, P. Hoffman, H.D. Mignouna and G.A. Wolf, Molecular identification of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing yam anthracnose in Nigeria, Plant Pathology, 51, 2002, 63-67.
 G.C. Orkwor and R. Asiedu, Yam research priorities, Tropical Root and Tuber Crops, Bulletin/IITA 8, 2004, 11-13.
 M.A. Ayodele, J. Hughes and R. Asiedu, Yam anthracnose disease: field symptoms and laboratory diagnostics (Ibadan: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2004).
 B.C. Sutton, The coelomycetes, Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata (Surrey, UK: Common wealth mycological institute, 1980).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Growth Suppression Of Some Common Post Harvest Rot Fungi By Culture Filtrates Of A Soil Isolate Of Trichoderma Viride.|
|Authors||:||T.P. Terna, A.C. Odebode, A.A. Bem|
Abstract: The antagonistic potential of culture filtrates of a soil isolate of T. viride was evaluated invitro, against three common post-harvest rot pathogens; A. niger, A. flavus, and F. oxysporum. Assay of three extracellular enzymes; chitinase, protease and cellulase, in respective enzyme-induced culture filtrates revealed the presence of enzyme activity. When 10% (v/v) concentration of the various lytic enzyme-induced culture filtrates were screened for antagonistic activity against three post-harvest rot fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium, it was observed that, while the synergistic combination of all three enzyme-induced culture filtrates (chitinase, protease and cellulase) of T. viride gave the highest radial growth inhibitions, 77.69% and 67.89% of A. niger and A. flavus respectively, chitinase induced culture filtrates of T. viride gave the highest radial growth inhibition, 46.95% of F. oxysporum. The T. viride strain used in the study showed potent antagonistic activity and could be considered a potential biocontrol agent against A. niger, A. flavus, and F. oxysporum.
Key words: Antagonistic activity, culture filtrates, lytic enzymes, post-harvest rot fungi, soil isolate
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 S. Compant, B. Duffy, J. Nowak, C. Clement, Use of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Biocontrol of plant Diseases: Principles, Mechanisms of Action, and Future Prospects, Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 2005, 4951.
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 M. Verma, S.K. Brar, R.D. Tyagi, R.V. Surampalli, J.R. Valero, Antagonistic Fungi, Trichoderma spp.: Panoply of Biological Control, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37, 2007.
 A. Kundu, M.R. Chakraborty and N.C. Chatterjee, Biocontrol of wood Decay by Trichoderma spp. – Retrospect and prospect, Journal Experimental Sciences, 22, 2008, 373-384.
 Y. Henis, Interactions between Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichoderma spp., relationship between antagonism and disease control, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16, 1984, 391-395
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Microbial Analysis of Soyabean Milk Sold In Makurdi Metropolis|
|Authors||:||Liamngee K., Terna T.P., Bem A.A., Orpin J.B., Mzungu I., Obaje M. Anum, T|
Abstract: A survey of the production and consumption rate of soymilk within Makurdi metropolis and its microbial quality was carried out. Samples were collected from women and children who hawked the product in Northbank, Wurukum, Highlevel and Wadata areas of Makurdi. Data on soymilk production and consumption was collected using questionnaire method. Pour plate method and relevant biochemical tests were used for isolation, identification and characterisation of microbes. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutrient content of milk samples. Producer educational status showed that 54.55% of the producers had primary school qualification while 27.27% had secondary school certificates; 18.18% were graduates. The consumption rate showed that 61.79% were daily consumers, 31.07% occasional consumers and 7.14% made up non-consumers. Proximate chemical analysis showed that the samples had high moisture content ranging from 68.50 – 91.49% with the ash content being 0.30 – 0.90%. The fibre content ranged from 0.10% - 0.35% and the lipid content, 1.56% - 17.10%. The protein content ranged from 2.86 to 7.76% while the carbohydrate content ranged from 3.09 – 13.93%. The microbial load of soymilk ranged from 6.9 × 107 – 7.6 × 107 c.f.u./ml for North bank, 4.1 × 107 – 5.6 × 107 c.f.u./ml for Wurukum, 3.0 × 107 – 4.7 × 107 c.f.u./ml for High level and 6.0 × 107 – 8.5 × 107 c.f.u./ml for Wadata respectively. All samples were contaminated with members of the enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Soymilk sold in the sampled areas were highly contaminated with faecal microbes, indicating poor hygiene of handlers and sanitary quality of processing water.
Key Words: Biochemical test, Makurdi, microbial load, proximate analysis, soymilk
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