Volume-9 ~ Issue-2
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Histogenesis of Human Foetal Lung: A Light Microscopic Study.|
|Authors||:||Dr. Deepali R. Kate, Dr. Sudhir M. Sant|
Abstract: Histogenesis of Lung was studied using 52 normal human fetuses ranging from 16 to 36 weeks of gestation, under Light Microscopy after sectioning the lung and staining with HaematoxylinandEosin.The Bronchial buds undergo repeated division to form bronchial tubes that differentiate into different parts of intrapulmonary bronchial tree. At 16 weeks , bronchial tubes of varying sizes were seen,of which the bronchi were lined by low columnar to pseudo stratified cells while the bronchioles showed simple columnar epithelium, cilia became evident by 19 weeks. The bronchi were accompanied by large blood vessels. Bronchial walls showed plates of pre cartilage at 16 weeks which were well formed by 20 weeks, lymphatic element by 22 weeks and glands by 24weeks.With further division of the bronchial tubes marked vascularization was noted. Respiratory bronchioles appeared at 25weeks and their further division into alveolar ducts and alveoli at 29 weeks. At 36 weeks walls of the alveoli were thinned out and invaded by capillaries, section resembled that of an adult lung.
Keywords:Human fetus, bronchial tubes, lung, Haematoxylin and Eosin Stain, Alveoli.
 Edward et al Edward.L,Charnock,Carl and Doershuk, Developmental aspects of Human Lung,Paediatric Clinics of North America,1973, 20: 275-292
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 Keith Moore, T.Persaud.1998, Developing Human in Development of Bronchi and Lungs6th edn, W.B Saunders Co. 262-266.
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Abstract:Hormones- estrogen and progesterone control the menstrual cycle in women. These hormones also affect the blood glucose. Many women notice fluctuations in blood glucose at certain times in their monthly cycle, such as an increase in blood glucose a few days prior to the beginning of their period and then a decrease once the period begins. This increase usually occurs after ovulation and before menstruation. These changes are caused by the hormones, estrogen and progesterone. When these hormones are at their highest level just before the menstruation, they affect another important hormone, insulin, which may in turn cause the blood glucose to rise. The study was carried out to know whether or not there are any consistent variations in the blood glucose levels in women with different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare the variations in blood glucose levels in different phases of menstruation between individuals. This study included 50 healthy women aged 18-22 years with regular menstrual cycles of 23-32 days who were non smokers and non alcoholics. Colorimetric technique was used for glucose measurement, enzyme linked immune sorbent assay technique (ELISA) for measurement of hormones. The results of the present study revealed significant increase in mean (±SD) values of serum glucose (p<0.0001) and serum progesterone levels (p<0.0001) with significant decrease of serum estradiol mean (±SD) values (p<0.0001) in luteal phase than follicular phase of menstrual cycle of healthy women. The rise in blood glucose concentration during luteal phase compared to follicular phase in the same subject and between the individuals indicated faster carbohydrate metabolism during follicular phase as compared to luteal phase. The reason is probably due to changes in the level of endogenous female sexual hormones particularly progesterone which causes insulin resistance.
Key words: blood glucose, menstrual cycle, female sex hormones, young healthy women.
. Bestetti GE, Locatelli V, Tirone F, Rossi GL, Muller EE (2000). One month of streptozotocin-diabetes induces different neuroendocrine and morphological alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of male and female rats. Endocrinology;117:208–16.
. Buckler HM, Robertson WR, Wu FC (2005). Which androgen replacement therapy for women? Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, University of Manchester, Hope Hospital, Salford, United Kingdom. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;83:3920-4 .
. Barberà A, Rodríguez-Gil JE, Guinovart JJ (1994). Insulin-like effects of tungstate in diabetic rats. J Biol Chem; 269:20047–53.
. Brüning JC, Gautam D, Burks DJ, Gillete J, Schubert M, Orban PC, Klein R, Krone W, Müller-Wieland D, Kahn CR (2000). Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction. Science; 289:2122–25.
. Bestetti GE, Junker U, Locatelli V, Rossi GL (2002). Continuous subtherapeutic insulin counteracts hypothalamo pituitary-gonadal alterations in diabetic rats. Diabetes; 36:1315–19.
. Ballester J, Muñoz MC, Domínguez J, Rigau T, Guinovart JJ, Rodríguez-Gil JE (2004). Insulin-dependent diabetes affects testicular function by FSH- and LH-linked mechanisms. J Androl ; 25:139–52.
. Barfield RJ. Glaser JH. Rubin BS. Etgen AM (2004). Behavioral effects of progestin in the brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology; 9:217-31.
. Billen, J., Blanckaert, N., De Moor, B., De Smet, F., D Hooghe, T., Gevaert, O., Kyama, C., Meuleman, C., Mihalyi, A., Pochet, N., Simsa, P.: WO2008049175 ( 2008 ).
. Claret M, Corominola M, Saura J, Barcelo-Batllori S, Guinovart JJ, Gomis R (2005). Tungstate decreases weight gain and adiposity in obese rats through increased thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. Endocrinology ;146:4362–69.
. Ding EL, Song Y, Malik VS, Liu S (2006): Sex differences of endogenous sex hormones and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic :1288–99.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Relationship of thumb prints and lip prints among Nigerians|
|Authors||:||L. H. Adamu, M. G. Taura, W.O. Hamman, S. A. Ojo, A. U. Dahiru, A. A Sadeeq, K. B. Umar|
Abstract: Establishment of association between two variables in the forensic science is of paramount importance. The study was aimed to determine association of lip prints types and left thumb prints among Nigerians. A total of 820 subjects (414 male and 406 female) participated in the study. The lip prints were obtained on microscopic glass slide and developed using carbon black powder. For finger prints normal conventional method of using ink pad was employed. The data were analyzed using chi square test and P <0.05 was considered as level of significance. The result shows the percentage distribution of lip prints as Type V (31.39%) as the predominant and the least was Type I' (0.57%). For thumbprints in both sexes loop exhibit high percentages and arches the least. The association between lip prints and left thumb print shows statistically significant correlation in Lower Right Medial (LRM) (χ2 = 7.95, P= 0.0002) and Lower Left Lateral (LLL) (χ2 =5.42, P=0.02) compartments only. In conclusion, the lip print was found to be statistically associated with left thumb prints. Hence, relationship of finger prints and lip prints can hold potential promise as supplementary tool in personal authentication.
Key words: Finger print Lip prints, Nigeria, Personal authentication
 S.S. Adebisi, Recent Challenges and Advancement: A literary review, The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, 2(2), 2009, DOI: 10.5580/18f3. ISSN: 1939-4594
 G. Langenberg, Are one's fingerprints similar to those of his parents in any discernable way? Scientific American, 2005, http://www.scientific american.com
 E.R. Henry, Classification and uses of fingerprints London. George Rutledge and Sons, Limited, 1900, 54
 W. Babler, Embryogenic development of epidermal ridges and their configurations. In: C. Plato, R. Garruto, and Schaumann, B. (Eds). Dermatoglyphics: Science in Transition, Wily-Liss, Inc. 1991
 K. Bonnevie, Die crsten entwick lungstadien der papillarmuster der menschlichen fingerballen. Nyt. Mag. Naturvidensicaaberne, 65, 1927, 19-56.
 E.J. Gould, A topographic study of the differentiation of the dermatoglyphic in the human embryo. PhD Dessertation, Tulane University, 1948
 A. Hale, Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human foetus, American Journal of Anatomy, 91, 1951, 147-180.
 W. Hirsch, Morphological evidence concerning the problem of skin ridge formation. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 17, 1973, 58-72.
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 L. Penrose, P. O'Hara, The development of epidermal ridge. Journal of Medical Genetic, 10, 1973, 201-208.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||MTA as A Revolution in Endodontics-A Review|
|Authors||:||Monisha R., Manish R.|
Abstract:MTA was developed in the year 1993 as root-end filling material as it possesses the ideal characteristics of orthograde or retrograde filling materials. An ideal material should seal the pathways of communication between root canal system and surrounding tissues, be nontoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. MTA is also been used for pulp capping, pulpotomy, apical barrier formation in teeth with open apexes, repair of root perforations, and root canal filling. The main aim of this article is to review the numerous studies done on various aspects of the material. This article describes the composition, setting reaction, mechanism of action, properties, clinical application and disadvantages of MTA.
Key words: Apical barrier, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, ProRoot MTA,Portland cement, Root end filling
 Masoud Parirokh, Mahmoud Torabinejad. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A comprehensive literature review-Part I: chemical, physical and antibacterial properties. J of Endodontics, 2010,36(1),16-27.
 Masoud Parirokh, Mahmoud Torabinejad. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A comprehensive literature review-Part II: leakage and biocompatibility. Journal of Endodontics,2010,36(2),190-202.
 Masoud Parirokh, Mahmoud Torabinejad. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A comprehensive literature review-Part I: clinical applications, drawbacks and mechanism of action. J of Endodontics,2010,36,
 S.C.V. Chedella & D.W. Berzins. A differential scanning calorimetry study of the setting reaction of MTA. International Endodontic Journal, 2010,43,509-518.
 Rodrigo Ricci Vivan,Ronald Ordinola Zapata, Marcia A Zeferino. Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of two commercial and three experimental root-end filling materials. OOO 2010,110(2)250-256.
 M.G. Gandolfi, P. Taddei, A. Tinti & C. Prati. Apatite forming ability (bioactivity) of ProRoot MTA. International Endodontic Journal, 2010,43,917-929.
 M.H. Nekoofar, K. Oloomi, M.S. Sheykhrezae, R.Tabor, D.F.Stone. An evaluation of the effect of blood and human serum on the surface microhardness and surface microstructure of MTA. International Endodontic Journal,2010,43,849-857.
 E.G.Zeferino, C.E.S.Bueno, L.M.Oyama & D.A.Riberio. Ex vivo assessment of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in murine fibroblasts exposed to white MTA or white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide. International Endodontic Journal, 2010,43,843-848.
 J.Camilleri. evaluation of the physical properties of an endodontic Portland cement incorporating alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling material. International Endodontic Journal,2010,43,231-240.
 M.H.Nekoofar,D.F.Stone,P.M.H.Dummer. the effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength and surface microstructure of MTA. International Endodontic Journal,2010,43,782-791.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Rare unilateral Wormian Bone on Coronal suture and multiple sutural bones on Lambdoid suture: a Case Report|
|Authors||:||Dr. Padmaja Vasi|
Abstract: Wormian bones or Sutural bones are small bones found on sutures of the skull. They vary in size, shape and number. During the Osteology demonstration class for under graduate students in Gandhi Medical College, Secunderbad, it was found that a rare occurrence of wormian bone on Coronal suture and multiple Sutural bones were seen on the Lambdoid suture of an adult Indian skull. It is important to know about these sutural bones because they can mislead the diagnosis in fracture of the skull. Knowledge of these bones is important to Radiologists, Neuro Surgeons and Orthopedic Surgeons.
Keywords: Skull, wormian bone, Coronal suture, Lambdoid suture, Lambda, Inca bone.
 Vishram Singh, Anatomy of Head, Neck & Brain 2009 Reed Elsevier India Pvt Limited, New Delhi.
 Hussain Saheb S et al / J Biomed Sci and Res., Vol 2 (2), 2010,116-118  Dr. Akram Abood Jaffar. "Sutural bones". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.  Glorieux FH, Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 22:1, pp. 85-100. 2008  Wormian Bones: Differential Diagnosis #6, The Radiology Blog, Published April 27, 2012
 Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Miyauchi R. Skeletal systems: Cranium. In: Compendium of human anatomical variations. Baltimore, Urban and Schwarzenberg. 1988; 197–205.
 Charles A, Parker M.D. Wormian bones. Robert press: Chicago. 1905;pp 5-6.
 Pryles CV, Khan AJ. Wormian bones. A marker of CNS abnormality? Am. J. Dis. Child. 1979; 133:380–382.
 Das S, Suri R, Kapur V. Anatomical observations on os inca and associated cranial deformities. Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2005; 64: 118–121.
 El-Najjar M, Dawson GL. The effect of artificial cranial deformation on the incidence of Wormian bones in the lambdoidal suture. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 1977; 46: 155–160.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Ocular Health Status of Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Uyo, South-South Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Abraham, Emem Godwin, Umoh, Victor|
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the systemic diseases with serious ocular complications. Ocular complications from diabetes mellitus could result from the microangiopathy and changes in the lens largely from poor gylcaemic control. Ocular complications also depend on duration of diabetes and presence or absence of other co-morbid conditions like hypertension. Since majority of the complications occur without prior symptoms, there is need for improved level of awareness in the community. This can only occur from a background of knowledge, hence this study. Materials and method: Interviewer administered questionnaire was administered to 218 consenting diabetic patients who were previously diagnosed or diagnosed in the eye clinic between January 2009 and December 2010. Ocular examination was carried out by the investigator. Result so obtained was analysed using SPSS17.0 statistical package. Result obtained presented as simple tables Results: Of the 218 diabetic patients examined, cataract was the commonest anterior segment finding (56.4%), while non proliferative diabetic retinopathy was commonest posterior segment finding (31%).glaucomatous disc cupping was seen in (11.4%). Conclusion: Diabetic eye complications are a public health problem hence the need for improved level of awareness and development of diabetic screening programmes in our community.
Key words: cataract, diabetes mellitus, retinopathy, rubeosis
. Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 1997;20: 1183 -1197.
. Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, van Haeften TW. Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy. Lancet 2005; 365:1333-1346.
. Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999; 104:787-794
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. Rothman DL, Magnusson I, Cline G, Gerard D, Kahn CR, Shulman RG et al. Decreased muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation is an early defect in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92:983-987
. Petersen KF, Dufour S, Befroy D, Garcia R, Shulman GI. Impaired mitochondrial activity in the insulin-resistant offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:664-671.
. Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:518-524.
. World Health Organization/International Diabetes Federation. The Economics of Diabetes and Diabetes Care: A Report of the Diabetes Health Economics Study Group. Geneva: WHO/IDF. 1999
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. Akinkugbe OO. Final report of national survey on non communicable diseases in Nigeria series 1. Federal Ministry of Health and social Service, Lagos;1997
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Lasers as a treatment modality for dentinal hypersensitivity|
|Authors||:||Teresa Mao, Dr. Julie Toby|
Abstract: Dentinal hypersensitivity affects a good number of the population, causing oral discomfort generated by pain. It is commonly caused by abrasion, abfraction, iatrogenic factors and parafunctional habits. There is no gold standard set for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity yet, but many modalities of treatment are in use. A new mode of treatment is by the use of lasers. This article highlights the effects of laser on teeth having dentinal hypersensitivity.
Keywords: Dentinal hypersensitivity, Lasers, Treatment
 Holland GR, Narthi MN, Addy M, Gangarosa L. Guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials on dentin hypersensitivity. J Clin. Periodontol 1997:24: 808-13)
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 DG Kerrs MJ Scheidt, DH Pashley " Dentinal tubule occlusion and root hypersensitivity" J of Periodon vol 62, no.7,pp421-28.1991
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 Efficacy of Strontium chloride in dentine hypersensitivity, Journal of Periodontology July 1987, vol 58;no 7; pp470-474
 Sommerman M. Desensitising agents. American Den Assoc 1998. P226-34; Branstrom M, Johnson G, Nordenvall K. Transmission and control of dentinal pain. JADA 1979;99;612-18
 Dent Mater. 2012 Feb;28(2):168-78. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2011.11.021. Epub 2011 Dec 23.
 Gangarosa LP. Iontophoretic application of fluoride in tray technique for desensitising multiple teeth. JADA 1981;102(1): 50-52.
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Abstract: Background & Objectives: HELLP syndrome is considered a placenta-instigated, liver-targeted acute inflammatory condition, with elements of disordered immunological processes. HELLP syndrome can be a great masquerader with vague and varied nature of presenting complaints making its diagnosis difficult. Delay in diagnosis may be life threatening with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. METHODS: 81 cases diagnosed of pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH) between May 2011 and April 2012 in department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Mamatha Medical College was included in the study. Of these 81, 18 cases fulfilled the criteria of HELLP. Maternal and perinatal outcome and also clinical and therapeutic factors affecting outcome were studied. Results: The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH) during this period is 14.3%, of these 22.2% fulfilled the criteria of HELLP. Maximum incidence is among age group 20 – 30 years (88%). The incidence of maternal complications in our study was higher compared to Hemanth et al3, with incidence of pleural effusion/ ascites being highest (44.4%). The incidence of intra uterine deaths was 33.3% and the incidence of neonatal deaths was 16.6%. Interpretation & Conclusion: The reason for higher morbidity in our study is delay in identifying the problem by referring doctors. This study uncovers only the tip of the iceberg and HELLP syndrome in non PIH cases were not evaluated. Earlier diagnosis and intervention improves maternal and perinatal outcome
Keywords: HELLP, Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)
. Abraham KA, Connolly G, Farrell J et al. The HELLP syndrome, a prospective study. Ren Fail 2001;23:705- 13.
. Vigil-De Gracia P. Pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia- eclampsia with HELLP syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001;72:17-23.
. Hemanh et al, J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 59, No. 1 : January/February 2009 pg 30-40
. High Risk Pregnancy: Management Options, 4e JAMES, STEER, WEINER AND GONIK. Ch-35 HYPERTENSION by GUSTAF DEKKER,pg:608
. Reubinoff BE, Schenker JG. HELLP syndrome-a syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count-complicating preeclampsia-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1991; 36:95-102.
. Saura P, Blanch L, Capdevila E et al. Spontaneous rupture of the liver during pregnancy. Intensive Care Med 1995; 21: 95-96.
. Van Pampus MG, Wolf H, Westenberg SM et al. Maternal and perinatal outcome after expectant management of the HELLP syndrome compared with preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998;76:31-6.
. Sibai BM, Ramadan MK, Usta I et al. Maternal morbidity and mortality in 442 pregnancies with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:1000-6.
. CLASP study: A randomised trial of low-dose aspirin for the treatment and prevention of preeclampsia among 9364 pregnant women. Lancet 1994;343:619-29
. RCOG guideline No.10(A) March 2006
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Abstract: A young lady presented with epigastric pain and amenorrhea of two months duration. Pregnancy test was positive, however, ultrasonography showed an empty uterus. Abdominal ultrasound revealed nodules on the liver with possible lesions in the pancrease. A CT scan subsequently revealed a pancreatic tumour with metastasis to different organs. Patient later developed jaundice and died before any intervention could be made. Pancreatic tumour is often diagnosed late due to their non specific symptoms. After the diagnosis is made the mortality is high irrespective of the pathologic and clinical stages. Paraneoplastic syndrome is often seen with oat cell carcinoma of the lung with significant production of cortisol. The presence of high level of HCG in woman is often associated with pregnancy or other trophoblastic diseases. It could also be seen in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Key Words: Paraneoplastic, Pancrease, CT SCAN, HCG
. Hruban RH, Offerhaus GJA, Kern SE. Familial pancreatic cancer. In Cameron JL, editor, Pancreatic Cancer Hamilton, London, Ontario, BC Decker, Inc., 2001; 25-36
. Jemal A, Murray T, Samuels A, Ghafoor A, Ward E, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics 2003. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2003; 53 : 5-26
. OI Alatise, OO Lawal, OT Ojo Challenges of Pancreatic Cancer Management in a Resource Scarce Setting East and Central African Journal of Surgery, Vol. 15, No. 2, July-December, 2010, pp. 52-58
. Lorraine C. Pelosof, David E. Gerber. Paraneoplastic Syndromes: An Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 September; 85(9): 838–854.
. Darnell R, Posner J: Paraneoplastic syndromes involving the nervous system. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:1543.
. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Vinay Kumar…[et al.]; Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8th ed., 2010
. Marinoni E, Di Netta T, Caramanico L, Tomei B, Moscarini M, Di Iorio R. Metastatic pancreatic cancer in late pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006 Apr;19(4):247-9
. Caras S, Laurie S, Cronk W, Tompkins W, Brashear R, McCallum RW Am J Med Sci. 1996 Jul;312(1):34-6.Case report: pancreatic cancer presenting with paraneoplastic gastroparesis
. Alatise OI, Ndububa DA, Ojo OS, Agbakwuru EA, Arowolo AO. Pancreatic cancer in Nigeria: Past, Present and future: Nig Journal of Gastro and Hepatology 2009; 1 (2); 61-74
. Silverman DT, Hoover RN, Brown LM, Swanson GM, Schiffman M, Greenberg RS, Hayes RB, Lillemoe KD, Schoenberg JB, Schwartz AG, Liff J, Pottern LM, Fraumeni JF Jr. Why do Black Americans have a higher risk of pancreatic cancer than White Americans? Epidemiology. 2003 Jan;14(1):45-54.
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Abstract: In this study, we compared the analgesic efficacy and safety of caudal dexmedetomidine and clonidine added to caudal bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing subumblical surgeries.90 patients aged 1 to 8 years scheduled for subumblical surgeries were randomly allocated into three groups of 30 patients each. Group A received 1ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine 2μg/Kg in normal saline 1 ml. Group B received 1ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with clonidine 2μg/Kg in normal saline 1 ml and Group C received 1ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with normal saline 1ml. All the patients in our study remained hemodynamically stable throughout the intraoperative and postoperative period. Addition of either dexmedetomidine 2μg/kg or clonidine 2μg/kg to 0.25% caudal bupivacaine significantly prolonged the postoperative analgesia time without increasing the incidence of side effects like nausea, vomiting, pruritis or urinary retention. Moreover dexmedetomidine did not offer significant advantage over clonidine as regards the duration of postoperative analgesia.
Keywords: bupivacaine, caudal, clonidine and dexmedetomidine
 Choonara IA: Management of pain in newborn infants. Semi Perinatol 1992; 16:32-40
 Campbell MF: Caudal anesthesia in children. Am J Urol 1933; 30:245-9
 Ansermino M, Basu R, and Vandebeek C, et al. Nonopioid additives to local anesthetics for caudal blockade in children: a systemic revive. Paediatr. Anaesth 2003; 13:501-73.
 Kumar P, Rudra A, Pan AK, Achariya A. caudal additives in pediatrics. A comparison among midazolam, Ketamine and Neostigmine co-administered with bupivacaine. Anesth-Analgesia 2005; 10: 69-73.
 Sheinin M, Pihlavisto M. Molecular pharmacology of alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonists. Bailliere's Clin Anaesth 2000; 14: 247-60.
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 Housmans PR. Effects of dexmedetomidine on contractility, relaxation and intracellular calcium transients of isolated ventricular myocardium. Anaesthesiology 1990; 73: 919-922.
 Rowney DA, Doyle E. Epidural and subarachnoid blockade in children. Anaesthesia 1998; 58:980-1001.
9] De Mey JC, Strobbet I, Poelaert, et al. The influence of sulfentanil and/or clonidine on the duration of analgesia after caudal block for hypospadias repair surgery in children. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2000; 17: 379-82.
 De Beer DAH, Thomas M. Caudal additives in children-Solution or problems? Br J Anaesth 2003; 90(4): 487-98.
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Abstract: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a cyst of tooth origin with an aggressive clinical behavior including a high recurrence rate. It has been rechristened to Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT), as it better reflects its neoplastic nature. We report 2 contrasting cases of KCOT in association with impacted teeth and revisit the various treatment modalities used to tackle the aggressive nature and keep its recurrence at bay. Most promising being use of molecular biology to treat such tumours which could eventually reduce or eliminate the need for aggressive methods to manage the lesions.
Keywords: benign, keratocystic Odontogenic tumor, , locally aggressive, Odontogenic keratocyst, , molecular biology
. Philipsen HP. Om keratocystedr (Kolesteratomer) and kaeberne. Tandlaegebladet 1956;60:963–971.
 Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. Pathology and genetics of head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005. WHO classification of tumours series.
 Toller P. Origin and growth of cysts of the jaws. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1967;40(5):306–336
 Ahlfors E, Larsson A, Sjögren S. The odontogenic keratocyst: a benign cystic tumor? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1984;42(1):10–19.
 Haring JI, Van Dis ML. Odontogenic keratocysts; a clinical, radiographic and histopathologic study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1988;66:145-153.
 Cohen MM. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: molecular biology and new hypotheses. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1999;28(3):216–223.
 Maurette PE, Jorge J, de Moraes M. Conservative treatment protocol of odontogenic keratocyst: a preliminary study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;64(3):379–383.
 Browne RM. The odontogenic keratocyst: clinical aspects. Br Dent J 1970;128(5):225–231.
 Brannon RB. The odontogenic keratocyst. A clinicopathologic study of 312 cases. Part I. Clinical features. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1976;42(1):54–72.
 Dayan D, Buchner A, Gorsky M, Harel-Raviv M. The peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988; 17(2):81–3.
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Abstract:Background: Blindness, which is potentially avoidable, is a serious public health problem globally. This study was carried out to determine prevalence of bilateral blindness and the utilization of existing eye care facilities by the bilaterally blind. Methods: A randomized cross sectional community-based study. Participants were community members aged 5years and above who were selected from 30 enumeration areas determined with EPI INFO V6 statistical software in line with standard practice. They had detailed ocular examinations and data were analyzed with SPSS. Results: Eligible participants were 1,236 (Male: Female = 1:2). Age ranged 5-103 years (median age, 55years). Prevalence of blindness was 4% (49/1236) for which Cataract (42.9%); Glaucoma (24.5%), Couching (10.2%) and Cornea opacity (8.2%) were the common causes. Most of those that were blind (57.1%) had never utilized eye care services available in the study area and lack of awareness was the reason in majority of them. Conclusions: Blindness as a result of avoidable causes is high in this community. Despite this, the level of utilization of available eye care facilities is low and this is mainly as a result of lack of awareness. Eye health promotion campaign at the rural level is recommended.
Keywords: Awareness, Bilaterally blind, Eye health, Prevalence, Utilization.
 Faw SM, Husain R, Gazzard GM, Koh D, Widjaja D, Tan D TH: Causes of low vision and blindness in rural Indonesia Br. J Ophthalmol 2003; 87: 1075-1078.
 WHO: Categories of visual impairment: Strategies for the prevention of blindness in National programmes. Technical report series, No 10 Geneva 1984
 Kehinde A.V and S.C Ogwurike .Pattern of Blindness in institution for the blind in Kaduna, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2005; 4:31-34.
 Link BG, Struening EL, Rahav M, Phelan JC, Nuttbrock L: On Stigma and its Consequences: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Men with Dial Diagnoses of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse. J Health Soc Behav 1997, 38(2):177-190
 Wang D, Ding X, He M, Yan L, Kuang J, Geng Q, Congdon N: Use of eye care services among diabetic patients in urban and rural China. Ophthalmology 2010, 117(9):1755-1762
 Keeffe JE, Weih LM, McCarty CA, Taylor HR: Utilisation of eye care services by urban and rural Australians. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86(1):24-27
 Lewallen S and Courtright P. Recognising and reducing barriers to cataract surgery. Commun Eye Health 2000; 13: 20–21
 Omolase CO and Mahmoud AO. Perceptions of Nigerian Ophthalmologists about traditional eye care practice in Nigeria. Afr.J.Med.Sci 2008; 37:255-259.
 Onakpoya OH, Adeoye AO, Akinsola FB, Adegbehingbe BO. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Atakumosa West local government area of Southwestern Nigeria. Tanzan Health Res Bull.2007;9:126-131
 National population commission census 2006. Federal Republic of Nigeria official Gazette.15th May 2007; 24 :175-198
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Abstract: One hundred and twenty eight (128) pregnant women of various age groups and gravidities who were at their different trimesters were interviewed to match their use of ITNs with their episodes of malaria. Structured closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The age range of the women was between 15 and 47 years. All of them owned insecticide – treated bed nets while only few of the owners utilized them. All the women attended antenatal care (ANC) at the government health care centres. Forty six (35.94%), 42(32.81%), and 40(31.25%) were primigravidae, secundigravidae, and multigravidae respectively. Thirty eight (29.70%), 47(36.72%), and 43(33.60%) were at their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively. Thirty seven (28.91%) of the entire sampled population utilized their bed nets, with those within the age group of 15 – 19 years making more use of their bed nets while those at 40 years and above made least use of theirs. Women at their 2nd trimesters of pregnancy utilized their bed nets most. Women within the age bracket of 15 -19 years and 20 -24 years utilized their bed nets better and experienced an average frequency of malaria episodes of 1 (once) while those who were 40 years and above made the least use of the bed nets and experienced the highest average frequency of malaria episodes of 5. An average frequency of malaria episode of 6 was observed among the primigravidae, while the secundigravidae who highly utilized their bed nets had an average episode of 4. Women in their 2nd trimesters utilized bed nets most and had the least average malaria episode of 3. Those in their 1st and 3rd trimesters each had an average malaria episode of 6.
Keywords: Utilization, Effectiveness, Bed nets, Malaria, Pregnancy.
. World Health Organisation. World Malaria Report Fact sheet. 2011.
. Aluko, J. O. and Abimbola, O. O. Utilization of insecticide – treated bednets during pregnancy among postpartum women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a cross sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2012, 12: 21 - 28
. United States Embassy in Nigeria. Nigeria malaria fact sheet. 2011. Accessed 14/02/2013.
. Schantz – Dunn, J and Nour, N. M. Malaria and pregnancy: a global health perspective. Review of Obstetrics and Gyneacology. 2009, 2(3): 186 – 192.
. Lagerberg, R. E. Malaria in pregnancy: a literature review. Journal of Midwifery Women's Health. 2008, 53(3): 209 – 215.
. Shulman, C and Dorman, E. Clinical features of malaria in pregnancy. In: Warrel D and Gilles, H. M. (eds). Essential Malariology. 4th ed. Arnold, London. 2003: 219 – 235
. Tako, E. A., Zhou, A., Lohoue, J., Leke, R., Taylor, D. W and Leke, R.S.G. Risk factors for placental malaria and its effect on pregnancy outcome in Yaounde, Cameroon. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2004, 72(3): 236 – 245.
. Giming, J. E., Vulule, J. M., Lo, T. Q., Kamau, L., Kokzak, M. S., Philips-Howard, P.A., Mathenge, E. M., Terkuile, F. O., Nahlen, B.L., Hightower, A. W and Hawley, W. A. Impact of permethrin – treated bednets on entomological indices in an area of intense year round malaria transmission. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003, 68 (suppl 4): 16 – 22.
. D'Alessandro, U., Langerock, P., Bennett, S., Francis, N., Cham, K., and Greenwood, B. M. The impact of a national impregnated bednet programme on the outcome of pregnancy in primigravidae in the Gambia. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996, 90:487 – 492.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Full Mouth Rehabilitation a Multidisciplinary Approach: Case Report|
|Authors||:||Dr. Avantika Singh, Dr. Rohan Bhede, Dr. Manoj Chandak, Dr. Ajay Saxena|
Abstract: A desire to look attractive is no longer taken as a sign of vanity. Since the face is the most exposed part of the body, and the mouth a prominent feature, teeth are getting a greater share of attention. The severe wear of anterior teeth facilitates the loss of anterior guidance, which protects the posterior teeth from wear during excursive movement. The collapse of posterior teeth also results in the loss of normal occlusal plane and the reduction of the vertical dimension. This case report describes 77-year-old female, who had the loss of anterior guidance, the severe wear of dentition, and the reduction of the vertical dimension. Occlusal overlay splint was used after the decision of increasing vertical dimension by anatomical landmark, facial and physiologic measurement. Once the compatibility of the new vertical dimension had been confirmed, interim fixed restoration and the permanent reconstruction was initiated.
Keywords: Tooth wear, Vertical dimension of occlusion, Occlusal overlay splint
. Turner KA, Missirlian DM. Restoration of the extremely worn dentition. J Prosthet Dent.1984; 52:467–474.
. Smith BG. Toothwear: aetiology and diagnosis. Dent Update. 1989;16:204–212.
. Prasad S, Kuracina J, Monaco EA., Jr Altering occlusal vertical dimension provisionally with base metal onlays: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2008; 100:338–342.
. Dawson PE. Functional Occlusion - From TMJ to smile design. 1st ed. New York: Elsevier Inc.; 2008. pp. 430–452.
. Jahangiri L, Jang S. Onlay partial denture technique for assessment of adequate occlusal vertical dimension: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2002; 87:1–4.
. Johansson A, Johansson AK, Omar R, Carlsson GE. Rehabilitation of the worn dentition. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35:548–566.
. Hemmings KW, Darbar UR, Vaughan S. Tooth wear treated with direct composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension: results at 30 months. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;83:287–293.
. Sato S, Hotta TH, Pedrazzi V. Removable occlusal overlay splint in the management of tooth wear: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2000; 83:392–395. . Brown KE. Reconstruction considerations for severe dental attrition. J Prosthet Dent.1980;44:384–388.
. Ganddini MR, Al-Mardini M, Graser GN, Almog D. Maxillary and mandibular overlay removable partial dentures for the restoration of worn teeth. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;91:210–214.
. Yunus N, Abdullah H, Hanapiah F. The use of implants in the occlusal rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 85:540–543.
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Abstract: The potential risk of prolongation of treatment time in cervical cancer has been reported for many low-dose rate (LDR) studies, with an estimated loss of local control ranging from 0.3 to 1.6% per day of treatment prolongation. Since the treatment schedule for fractionated high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICBT) is not directly comparable with that for LDR studies. Many studies are also present with different results. Aims: To evaluate the adverse effect of treatment prolongation for cervical cancer treated with HDRICBT
Keywords: Treatment prolongation, paclitaxel, cervical carcinoma, HDR brachytherapy
. National Institute of Health consensus Development Conference Statement on cervical Cancer, 1997.
. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J.: Global cancer statistics, 1999. CA Cancer J Clin 55:74-108, 2000.
. Stewart BW, Kleihues P, eds. (2003) World cancer report. Lyon, IARC Press, 215-224.
. Saibishkumar EP, Patel FD, Sharma SC (2005) Results of a phase II trial of concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of locally advanced carcinoma of uterine cervix: an experience from India. Bull Cancer 92, 7-12.
. Datta NR, Agrawal S (2006) does the evidence supports the use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy as a standard in the management of locally advanced cancer of the cervix, especially in developing countries? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 18, 306-12.
. Pearcey R, Brundage M, Drouin P, Jeffrey J, Johnston D, Lukka H, et.al (2002) Phase III trial comparing radical radiotherapy with and without cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol 20, 966-72.
. Green J, Kirwan J, Tierney J, Vale C, Symonds P, Fresco L, et.al (2006) Concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
. Chen M.D et al Phase I trial of Taxol as a radiation sensitizer in advanced cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol1997, 67,131.
. Pignata S, Frezza P, Tramontana S, Perrone F, Tambaro R, Casella G, et al. Phase I study with weekly cisplatin–paclitaxel and concurrent radiotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Ann Oncol 2000:455–9.
. Monk BJ, Tewari KS: Invasive cervical cancer, in DiS aia PJ, Creasman WT (eds): Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (ed 7). Philadelphia, PA, Mosby Publishers, 2007
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Indian diabetic risk score- To Nip in the Bud|
|Authors||:||Dr. A. J. Manjula Devi|
Abstract: Introduction: The International Diabetic Federation (IDF) Diabetic Atlas Fifth edition reports that half of the diabetic patients are undiagnosed. India has earned the reputation of being termed the Diabetic Capital of the world. Diabetes, which was once prevalent only among adults, is now found commonly in children due to change in lifestyle and imbalanced eating habits. More and more young adolescents are falling prey to the disease. So mass awareness and screening programs are the need of the hour. Material & Methods: This study was carried among 100 I M.B.B.S students of Sree Balaji Medical College. Indian Diabetic Risk score (IDRS) questionnaire was used to score the students. Students in the risk score above 60% were advised to undergo Fasting and Post prandial blood sugar levels. Results: Only one student showed high risk whereas the study revealed that 51% of student lacked exercise in their schedule.
Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, Indian Diabetic Risk score IDRS, medical students.
. Mohan D, Raj D, Shanthirani CS, Datta M, Unwin NC,Kapur A, et al. Awareness and knowledge of diabetes in Chennai - the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-9). J Assoc Physicians India 2005; 53: 283-7.
. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vijay V, King H. Impact of poverty on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications in urban southern India. Diabet Med 2002;19 : 130-5.
. Vardhan A, Adhikari Prabha MR,Kotian Shashidhar M,Saxena N,Gupta S,Tripathy A.The value of the Indian Diabetes Risk score as a tool for reducing the risk of diabetes among Indian Medical Students.J.Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:718-20
. Shashank R JoshiIndian Diabetes Risk Score JAPI • VOL. 53 • SEPTEMBER 2005
. Prabha Adhikari, Rahul Pathak, Shashidhar Kotian -Validation of the MDRF - Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) in another South Indian Population through the Boloor Diabetes Study (BDS) JAPI • July 2010 • Vol. 58
. V Mohan, R Deepa , M Deepa , S Somannavar , M Datta- A Simplified Indian Diabetes Risk Score for Screening for Undiagnosed Diabetic Subjects JAPI • VOL. 53 • SEPTEMBER 2005.
. Pranita Ashok, Jayshree S.Kharche, Aniruddha R.Joshi -Evaluation of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Medical students using Indian Diabetic Risk score-Indian Journal of Medical sciences, Vol 65,No.1,January 2011.
. Mohan V, Deepa M, Deepa R, Shanthirani CS, Farooq S, Ganesan A, Datta M. Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in urban south India – the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-17). Diabetologia 2006; 49:1175-1178.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Medical Audit of Appendisectomies in Rural Based Tertiary Care Centre.|
|Authors||:||Dr. S. Akhtar, Dr. S. A. Maimoon, Dr. S. D. Mahore|
Abstract: Acute appendicitis is one of the common surgical emergencies. There are various scoring systems in use to diagnose appendicitis. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of appendisectomies by using the modified Alvarado scoring system and histopathology for acute appendicitis. A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients hospitalized with abdominal pain suggestive of acute appendicitis and were subsequently operated, from June 2010 to July 2011 NKP SIMS & LMH Nagpur. Both male and female patients from 7 years to 55 years of age were enrolled in the study. Preoperatively, modified Alvarado score was assigned to all, and results were compared with Histopatholgical diagnosis. Out of 100 operated patients 81 were diagnosed as acute appendicitis on the basis of Histopatholgical report. Patients with modified Alvarado score of 8-10, 5-7 and 1-4 have the accuracy of 90%, 79%, and 0.4% respectively. In the higher score group the accuracy is more and acceptable. Lower score group should be kept under observation. Score sensitivity is more in male than female patients. This scoring system is a reliable and practicable diagnostic modality to increase the accuracy in diagnosis of acute appendicitis and thus to minimize unnecessary appendisectomies.
Key Words: Audit, Alvarado scoring system, acute appendicitis.
. Fitz RH. Perforating inflammation of the vermiform appendix with special reference to its early diagnosis and treatment Am J Med Sci 1886; 92:32-46.
. Schwartz SI, Shires GT, Spencer Fe. Principles of Surgery. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc; 1994.p. 1307-18.
. Wilcox RT, Willims L W. Have the evaluation and treatment of acute appendicitis changed with new technology Surg Clin N Am 1997; 77: 1355-70.
. Izbicki J R, Knoefel W T, Wilker 0 K, Mandelkow H K, Muller K, Siebeck M.
. Accurate diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Analysis of 686 patients. Eur Journ Surg 1992; 158:227-31.
. Khan I,Rehman A U, Application of Alvarado scoring system in diagnosis of Acute appendicitis. Journ Ayub Med Coil 2005; 17(3):41-44.
. Alvarado A. A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute apendicitis. Ann Emerg Med 1986; 15 : 557-564.
. Macklin CP, Radcliffe GS, Merei JM, Stringer MD. A prospective evaluation of modified Alvarado scores for acute appendicitis in children. Ann R Coli Surg Eng11997; 79:203-205.
. Marudanayagam R, Williams G, Rees B. Review of the pathological results of 2660
. appendicectomy specimens. J Gastroenterol2006; 41(8): 745-749.