Volume-8 ~ Issue-1
- Full PDF
Abstract: Dermatoglyphic features are inherited by polygenic system with individual gene contributing a small additive effect. The present research aims to primarily study the various dermatoglyphic patterns in the patients of the Maturity Onset Diabetes Mellitus (Type II diabetes) and compare these statistically with the dermatoglyphic patterns in individuals not suffering from it. The present study was carried out on 101 (51 male and 50 female) clinically diagnosed patients of maturity onset diabetes mellitus. Healthy controls (n=100, 50 males and 50 females) were studied for comparison. Palmar prints were obtained in all the patients and controls and the dermatoglyphic patterns were analyzed using statistical considerations. Standard fingertip pattern configurations and landmarks were used in the study. Significantly higher frequency of arches and lower frequency of whorls were observed in female diabetics than controls. Dankmeijer's Index was highest in female diabetic group and Furuhata's Index was highest in the male control group. AFRC and TFRC were significantly lower in diabetic females than controls. Findings of the present study after a meticulous analysis of different fingertip dermatoglyphic variables highlights on the possible markers and indicate that there is scope for further study on a larger sample size.
Keywords- Arches, Dermatoglyphics, Maturity Onset Diabetes Mellitus, Palmar print, Ulnar loops, Radial loops, Whorls
 Park K., Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine (15th ed. Jabalpur. India: M/S Banaridas Bhanot, 1997).
 Robert FM, Young ID. Emery's elements of Medical genetics (10th ed. Edinburgh London: Churchill Livingstone, 1998).  Iqbal MA, Sahay BK, Ahuja YR, Finger and palmar ridge counts in diabetes mellitus, Acta Anthropogenetica 2(3), 1978, 35-38.
 Sant SM, Vare AM, Fakhruddin S, Dermatoglyphics in diabetes mellitus, J Anat Soc India 3(2), 1983, 127-30.
 Verbov JL, Dermatoglyphics in early onset diabetes mellitus, Human Hered. 23(6), 1973, 535-42.  Ravindranath R, Thomas IH, Finger ridge count and finger print pattern in maturity onset diabetes mellitus, Ind J Med Sci 49, 1995, 153-156.
 Sarthak Sengupta, Jina Borush, Finger dermatoglyphic patterns in diabetes mellitus, J Hum. Ecol7(3), 1996, 203-206.
 Vadgaonkar R, Pai M, Prabhu L, Saralaya V, Digito- palmar complex in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Tuek J Med Sci. 36(6), 2006, 353-35.
 Barta L, Regoly-Merei A, Kammerer L, Dermatoglyphic features in diabetes mellitus, Acta Paediatr Acad Sci Hung. 19(1), 1978, 31-4.
 Mandasesu S, Richards B, Cadman J, Detection of prediabetics by palmar prints: a computor based study leading to a low cost tool. Available at:http//atlas.ici.echoto/MEDNIF99/papers/Benard/detection of pre.htm
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Correlation Of Sputum Gram's Stain And Culture In Lower Respiratory Tract Infections|
|Authors||:||Anuradha Mokkapati, Madhavi Yalamanchili|
Abstract: Background: For diagnosis of Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), expectorated sputum is the most commonly received sample in the laboratory. Normal resident bacteria of the oropharynx usually contaminate the sputum sample. The value of sputum microscopy and culture in the diagnosis, management and outcome of LRTIs is a matter of controversy. The following study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of Gram's stain and culture in sputum samples from LRTIs. Materials & Methods: The present study was during a one year period (January to December 2012). A total of 120 sputum samples were processed . All the samples were processed through Gram's stain and culture. The Gram's smear was examined for the presence of polymorphs, epithelial cells and bacterial forms. Sputum samples were evaluated based on Bartlett's grading system. The cultures were incubated at 370C overnight and identified in a Microscan autoSCAN 4 instrument (SIEMENS). Results And Conclusions: Out of 120 sputum samples processed, 78 (65%) were acceptable and 42 (35%) were not meeting the standard criteria of Bartlett. Potential pathogens were obtained from 70 of 78 acceptable samples (89.74%), and from 4 of 42 non-acceptable samples (9.52%). Gram's stain could detect similar morphological forms as that obtained in culture in 62 of the acceptable samples (sensitivity- 79.48%) and 4 of the non acceptable samples (sensitivity -4.76%). The most common organisms isolated in the present study include: Klebsiella pneumoniae- 22.85%, Streptococcus pneumoniae- 11.49% and Staphylococcus aureus- 10%. As authors of the present study, we recommend initial screening of sputum samples for clinically relevant results, and reject the non-acceptable samples, and re-order for fresh and correct specimens. Key Words: Sputum, Gram's stain, Bartlett's criteria, sputum culture.
. Nihan Ziyade, Aysegul Yagci. Improving sputum culture results for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections by saline washing. Marmara Medical Journal, 2010; 23(1): 30-36.
. Ravichandran Theerthakarai, Walid El Halees, Medhat Ismail, Roberto A. Solis, M Anees Khan. Non value of Initial Microbiological Studies in the management of non severe Community Acquired Pneumonia. Chest, January 2001; 119(1): 181-184.
. Washington Winn Jr, Stephen Allen, William Janda, Elmer Koneman. Guidelines for collection, transport, processing, analysis and reporting of cultures from specific specimen sources. In: Koneman's colour atlas and textbook of Microbiology, 6th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins publications, 2006: 68-111.
. Fuselier PA, Garcin LS, Procop GW. Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract. In: Betty AF, Daniel FS, Alice SW, editors. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology. Mosby, 2002; 884-898..
. Stavros Anevlavis, Niki Petroglon, Athanasios Tzavaras, Efstratios Maltzos, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Marios Froudarakis, Eleftherios Anevlavis, Demosthenes Bouros. A prospective study of the diagnostic utility of sputum Gram stain in pneumonia. Journal of Infection, 2009; 59: 83-89.
. Mariraj J, Surekha Y, Asangi, Krishna S, Suresh B Sonth, Ramesh, Shanmugam. Sputum Gram's stain assessment in relation to sputum culture for Respiratory Tract Infections in a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, December 2011; 5(8): 1699-1700.
. Daniel M Musher, Roberto Montoya, Anna Wanahita. Diagnostic value of microscopic examination of Gram stained sputum and sputum cultures in patients with Pneumococcal pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2004; 39: 165-169.
. Jean Jacques Lloveras, Mohamed –Issam, Shukr, Claude Pinos, Anissa Lindoulsi, Philippe Grima. Usefulness of sputum Gram's stain and culture for diagnosis of pneumonia in Geriatric institution. Journal of IMAB, 2010; 16(3): 20-22.
. Nawfal Ali Mubarak. The findings of sputum culture of intubated mechanically ventilated patients versus non intubated patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Basrah Journal of Surgery, September 2012; 18: 1-5.
. Aroma Oberoi, Aruna Aggarwal. Bacteriological profile, Serology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Micro-organisms from Community Acquired Pneumonia. J K Science, April-June 2006; 8(2): 79-82.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Cell Hydrogen Oxidation|
|Authors||:||Thiyagarajan babu, Chidambaram|
Abstract:Every individual‟s 75 to 100 trillion (1014) living cells fight with the millions of harmful radicals which were unstable molecules lacking one or more electrons and compensate by damaging healthy cells. Human body posses millions of glands all over the body to provide specialized products like proteins, fatty acids, hormones etc., to take care of any irregularity and inconsistency in the human system. Indeed the specialized glands like lachrymal gland, sweat gland, salivary glands etc., secrete only the essential compounds and those compounds reach cells associating with cellular water to protect the respective organs. The water every human being consumed was converted as cellular water (reduced surface tension and increased wetting ability) at standard ambient temperature and pressure and reverse was not possible in the cell system. The objective of this paper was that "No water molecules were externally released from human skin or any part of human cells except through kidney system." For example watery fluid formation inside the mouth involved different chemical reaction and it mixed with "salivary compounds‟ forming "saliva‟ contrary to existing saliva chemistry. The cell Hydrogen oxidation process was unknown due to the fact tears, saliva, nasal fluid and perspiration had the traces of compounds of respective glands and literatures cited they were the products of respective glands misleading the entire scientific community till date "My review is going to clear all the misconception and cell Hydrogen oxidation (redox potential balance) is explained more appropriately in this paper.
Key words: - Radicals, Glands, Molecules, Dehydration, Oxidation, Hyperhidrosis.
. Gleick, PH., Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources. Table 2.1 "Water reserves on the earth."Oxford University Press. 1993; p 13. . Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of Medical Physiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1976; p. 424. ISBN 0-7216-4393-0. . "MDG Report 2008". Retrieved 2010-07-25.
. Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Jeffrey Utz, M.D., The MadSci Network.
. Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin, Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
. Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences. Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Research Council, Reprint and Circular Series, No. 122. 1945; pp. 3–18.
. "Eye, human."Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006; Ultimate Reference Suite DVD 2009.
. Thiyagarajan Babu, , Noble Ganga Tears-Sweat Bomb Theory, (IOSR-JNHS) e-ISSN: 2320–1959.p- ISSN: 2320–1940. 2013; 1 (3) , 52-54.
. Skorucak A. "The Science of Tears." ScienceIQ.com. Accessed September 29, 2006. . Holly FJ, Lemp MA, , Tear physiology and dry eyes, Surv Ophthalmol, 1977; Sep-Oct; 22 (2) : 69-87.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Relaxation Technique and Premenstual Syndrome: A Psychophysiological Study.|
|Authors||:||Dr. Veena jasuja, Dr. Samir mendpara, Ms. Geetanjali Purohit, Dr. B. M. Palan|
Abstract: The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of progressive muscular relaxation technique to relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and to evaluate cardiovascular and respiratory parameters that may serve as objective measures of the efficacy of progressive muscular relaxation. A total 90 participants were randomly assigned to group A an experimental group, group B as control group, group C as absolute control group. Physiological parameters included in this study were pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Respiratory rate, Peak expiratory flow rate, O2 saturation. All the parameters were recorded at beginning and at end after intervention. PMR technique was used in experimental group only. For one month group A was given PMR. Progressive muscular relaxation showed significant possible benefits in terms of decrease in pulse rate, SBP and RR. PEFR increased and SPO2 did not show any change.
Key worlds: progressive muscular relaxation, premenstrual syndrome, relaxation technique.
. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-DSM-I4. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
. Mortola J: Premenstrual syndrome- pathophysiologic considerations. N Engl J Med 338:256-257, 1998
. Woods NF, Most A , Lohgenecker GD . Major life events, daily stressors, and premenstrual syndromes. Nurse Res 1985;34:263-7.
. Reid R: Premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med 324:1208-1210, 1991
. Snyderman R, Weil AT: Integrative medicine: bringing medicineback to its roots. Arch Int Med162:395-397, 2002
. Bell IR, Caspi O, Schwartz GE, et al: Integrative medicine andsystemic outcomes research. Arch Med 162:133-140, 2002
. Chrousos GP, Torpy DJ, Gold PW: Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the female reproductivesystem: implications. Ann Intern Med 129:229-240, 1998
. Mortola J: Premenstrual syndrome-pathophysiologic considerations. N Engl J Med 338:256-257, 1998
. Singh B, Berman B, Simpson R, et al: Incidence of premenstrual syndrome and remedy usage: a national probability sample study. Altern Ther Health Med 4:75-79, 1998
. Jyoti dvivedi et Effect of 61- Points relaxation technique on stress parameters in premenstrual syndrome, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 52 (1) : 69–76 654
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics in Mentally Retarded Children|
|Authors||:||Dr. Vaishali B. Bhagwat, Dr. Mrs. M. M. Meshram|
Abstract: A state of mental retardation may be produced by various endogenous and exogenous influences acting independently or in concert with each other. Recently dermatoglypic patterns have been utilized as a diagnostic tool in various disorders like mental retardation. The study comprising of 400 subjects (200 mentally retarded, 200 controls) was carried out in the Department of Anatomy Government Medical College, Nagpur. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the dermatoglyphic features in the mentally retarded children. The features which showed significant variations in mentally retarded children included: low total finger ridge count (TFRC), higher ATD angle, and distal displacement of axial Triradius, an increased frequency of Simian crease and Sydney line. Keywords- Dermatoglyphics, Loops, Mentally Retardation, Simian Crease, Whorls,
. Cummins H. and Midlo, Palmar & Planter epidermal ridge Configurations, European & American: Am.J.Phy.Anthroplogy, 9,1926,471-502
. Penrose, Fingerprints Palms&Chromosomes nature,197,1963,933-938
. Alter M. and Bruhel H, Dermatoglyphics in idiopathic mental retardation, American Journal of Diseases in children, 113, 1967,702-706.
. Clare Davison,Dermatoglyphic in patients with idiopathic severe subnormality and Genetic studies in mental subnormality, British Journal of Psychiatry special publication, 8, 1973, 21-24.
. Cummins &Midlo, Fingerprints in Palms &Soles, An introduction to Dermatoglyphics, Dovar Pub. INC New York, 1961.
. Gupta A.R, Sethi B.B. and Singh M.P, A Dermatoglyphic study in mental subnormality, Journal of Associations of Physicians of India, 24(4), 1976, 219-223.
. Purandare H, Atre P.R. & Vare A.M, Dermatoglyphic features in mentally retarded children,Anat.Soc. of IndiaVol.27,1978,3
. Kher, Indurkar M.B., Dermatoglyphics in Pediatric practice, Indian journal of Medical Science Vol.25, 1971, 618
. Niikawa N and Kuroki Y, Kabuki make up syndrome, American journal of Medical Genetics, 31, 1988, 565-589.
. Chen Harold, The simian line, Medical Journal, Sep Vol. II, 9, 2001, 134-139.
- Full PDF
Abstract: Background: Achieving a high degree of diagnostic accuracy is important in practice of medicine. High degree of accuracy of provisional diagnosis may lead to use of lesser number of investigations with lesser cost burden to the health sector. Therefore, this gap analysis study aims to find out that how accurately provisional diagnosis matches final diagnosis. Methodology: This was a retrospective record based comparative study done in the Medicine Ward of R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata over a period of one month. Every patient having planned discharged on a particular day from male/female ward were selected and his/her treatment file was viewed and relevant informations were collected. The major outcome variable of the study was the matching/unmatching of final diagnosis with provisional diagnosis of the case. Results: Out of 420 patients, 182(43.3%) had their final diagnosis same as that of their provisional diagnosis. Association was found to be significant in case of period of hospital stay, referrals, type of investigations and number of investigations. Clinical examination had 55.4% sensitivity and while diagnostic investigations had sensitivity of 44.51% . Conclusion: Matching of provisional diagnosis with discharge diagnosis with greater accuracy and lesser number of investigations can lead to greater patient satisfaction along with lesser burden on health resources of the state. Technological developments for diagnosis are important but will never supplant the role of careful history taking for symptoms and clinical examination for signs.
Keywords - gap analysis, provisional diagnosis, final diagnosis
 Ghom Anil. Text Book of Oral Medicine. Jayapee Publications;2005. p 73.
. Chui HS, Chan KF, Chung CH, Ma K, Au KW.A comparison of emergency department admission diagnoses and discharge diagnoses: retrospective study; Hong Kong Journal of emergency medicine, Vol 10(2)April 2003:70-75
. Chaudhry Muhammad Rashid. Accuracy of provisional diagnosis made in accident and emergency department; The Professional Medical Journal, Vol 5(1)1998:63-67. [
4]. Fracaro MS, Seow WK, McAllan LH, Purdie DM. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical assessment compared with bitewing radiography for detection of occlusal dentin caries. Pediatr Dent. 2001 May-Jun;23(3):204-10.
. Katz Jeffery N, Daglas M, Stucki G, Katz N P, Bayley J, Fossel AH, Chang LC, Lipson SJ. Degenerative Lumbar spine stenosis-Diagnostc value of the History and Physical exam. Arthiritis &Rheumatism, Vol 35(9)September 1995:1236-41.
- Full PDF
Abstract: Background: Improved method of examining drug prescribing in a health service are a necessary prerequisite for planning measures intended to bring about financial economics in drug use with the least possible impairment of the quality of medical care. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the prescribing pattern of General Duty Medical Officers (GDMO) of CGHS. Methodology: This health service research study, cross sectional in design was conducted over one year period in CGHS Dispensaries at Kolkata. A multistage sampling method was followed. Total number of respondents was 412. WHO/INRUD Core indicators were used in prescription analysis. Results: Average number of drugs per prescription in the study was 3.05+/-2.54(1-7). 33.0% of all the prescriptions had antibiotics. Overall average consultation time was 2.3+/-1.53 minutes and average dispensing time was 4.3+/-1.6 minutes. E.D.L/ formulary was available in all the selected dispensaries. Average cost per prescription was Rs.103.8+/-233. Conclusion: This study on prescription audit in CGHS Dispensaries at Kolkata revealed that prescribing habits of the G.D.M.O's as well as the dispensing practices may be bettered. There is a need to strengthen an independent mechanism for continuing professional development of practitioners to ensure that patients are always given evidence-based, cost-effective treatments.
Keywords - Prescription, audit, CGHS Dispensaries
 Managing Drug Supply-The selection, procurement, distribution and use of pharmaceuticals. West Hartford, M.S.H and W.H.O collaboration, Action programme on Essential drugs.1997.
 Halder D. An Assessment of Inventory Control and Drug Utilization Pattern in Central Government Health Scheme Dispensaries at Kolkata. Thesis; All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health,2004.
 Hogerzeil Hans V. Promoting the rational use of medicines WHO Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy: October 2002.
 Karande S, Sankhe P, Kulkarni M. Patterns of prescription and drug dispensing. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72:117-121
 Ravi Shankar P, Partha P, Nagesh S. Prescribing patterns in medical outpatients. Int J Clin Pract 2002; 56: 549-551
 Biswas R; Chatterjee P; Mundle M; Prescribing habits of physicians in Medical College, Calcutta; Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2000 Oct-Dec; 25(4): 161-5
 Rehan HS, Lal P. Drug prescribing pattern of interns at a government healthcare centre in northern India. Trop Doct 2002; 32: 4-7.
 Salman MTe.tal. Drug Prescribing Pattern in Surgical Wards of a Teaching Hospital in North India. Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor :Vol. 5, No. 2 (2008-05 - 2008-06)
 Rishi RK, Sangeeta S, Surendra K, Tailang M. Prescription audit: Experience in Garhwal (Uttaranchal), India. Trop Doct 2003;33:76-9.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Dental Pulp Stem Cells Scope in Dentistry; A Review|
|Authors||:||Dr. C. Pushpalatha , Dr. Anand Nimbal, Dr. Shrenik Jain, Dr. Praveen Tammannavar|
Abstract: Dental pulp is a well known tissue enrich of adult mesenchymal stem cells called Dental Pulp Stem cells (DPSc). These adult stem cells play an important role in regenerative medicine both for oral and non oral pathoses with biological properties such as multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility. Dental pulp stem cells were primarily derived from the pulp tissues of exfoliated deciduous teeth, primary incisors and permanent third molar teeth. Role of stem cells for hard tissue formation has considerably increased attention of researchers as these cells can be a fascinating source of stable differentiated cells, capable of inducing bone formation and control hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Dental professionals have the opportunity to make their patients aware of these new sources of stem cells that can be stored for future use as new therapies are developed for a range of diseases and injuries. Keywords: Stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, SHED, Tissue engineering
. Barry FP, Murphy JM. Mesenchymal stem cells: clinical applications and biological characterization. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004; 36 (4):568–84.
. Ryu KH, Cho SJ, Jung YJ, Seoh JY, Kie JH, et al. In vitro generation of functional dendritic cells from human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells by a 2-step culture method. Int J Hematol. 2004; 80: 281–6.
. Paloma Dias Telles, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado, Vivien Thiemy Sakai, Jacques Eduardo Nor: Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells, J Appl Oral Sci. 2011;19(3):189-194
. Ballini A, De Frenza G, Cantore S, Papa F, Grano M, Mastrangelo F, et al. In vitro stem cell cultures from human dental pulp and periodontal ligament: new prospects in dentistry. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2007; 20:9-16.
. Edwards PC, Mason JM. Gene-enhanced tissue engineering for dental hard tissue regeneration: (2) dentin-pulp and periodontal regeneration. Head Face Med. 2006; 2:16.
. Gronthos S, Zannettino A, Hay SJ, Shi S, Graves SE, Kortesidis A, et al. Molecular and cellular characterization of highly purified stromal stem cells derived from human bone marrow. J Cell Sci. 2003; 116:1827-35.
. Huang GT, Shagramanova K, Chan S. Formation of odontoblastlike cells from cultured human dental pulp cells on dentin in vitro. J Endod. 2006; 32:1066-73.
. Koyama N, Okubo Y, Nakao K, Bessho K. Evaluation of pluripotency in human dental pulp cells. J Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2009; 67:501-6.
. Maria OM, Khosravi R, Mezey E, Tran SD. Cells from bone marrow that evolve into oral tissues and their clinical applications. Oral Dis. 2006, 13:11-6.
. Sloan, AJ. & Waddington R. (2009) . Dental pulp stem cells: what, where, how? International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. Vol. 19, No.1, (January 2009), pp.61-70.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Injection Safety Practices among Medical Doctors in a Tertiary Health Institution in South Southern Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Obi AI, Ofili AN|
Abstract: Unsafe injection practices are common in developing countries including Nigeria. Unsafe injection practices cause an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually globally. This study assessed injection safety practices among doctors in a Teaching Hospital in Edo Stat, utilizing a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software with statistical significance set at p=0.05. Results Three hundred and nine (96.6%) and 11(3.4%) of respondents had good and poor knowledge of injection safety respectively. Training received on injection safety (χ2=6.84; p=0.033) significantly influenced knowledge of injection safety. Three hundred and three (94.7%) and 17(5.3%) of respondents were involved in safe and unsafe injection practices. Recapping of needle and syringe was the most common unsafe injection practice 12(70.5%) with 8(47.1%) and 9(52.9%) respondents engaged in this act always and sometimes respectively. Conclusion This study identified good knowledge and a high prevalence of safe injection safety practice among doctors but gaps exists between knowledge and practice of injection safety among doctors. There is need to strengthen frequency of training and behavior change interventions on injection safety among doctors and human resources for health to bridge this gap.
Key words: Doctors, injection safety, teaching hospital, unsafe injection practices.
. World Health Organisation. The global burden of unsafe care in research for patient safety, WHO Publications 2008.
. Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Post exposure Prophylaxis. Vol 50, No RR11; 1
. Federal Ministry of Health. National Policy on Injection safety and Health care waste Management 2007; 1-6
. Miller MA and Pisani E. The cost of unsafe injections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1999; 77,808–81
. Janszen E and Laning W. Injections: more expensive, more effective and faster. In Wolffers I and Bloem M. (eds) The Impact of Injections on Daily Medical Practice. VU University Press, Amsterdam; 1993.
. Birungi H Injections and self-help: risk and trust in Ugandan health care. Social Science and Medicine, 1998; 47,1455–62
. Kane A, Lloyd J, Zaffran M, Simonsen L and Kane M. Transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses through unsafe injections in the developing world: model-based regional estimates. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1999; 77,801–7.
. WHO. Safety of Injections. Fact Sheet No. 231/232. WHO, Geneva; 1999.
. Hutin Y and Chen RT. Injection safety: a global challenge. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1999; 77, 787–88.
. Adegboye AA, Moss GB, Soyinka F and Kreiss JK.The epidemiology of needlestick and sharp instruments accidents in a Nigerian hospital. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology,1994; 15, 27–31
- Full PDF
Abstract: Introduction: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosisis acondition associated with limited to zero mouth opening. In addition to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, anemia& malnutrition, airway obstruction may be present. All these changes make not only intubation but ventilation also difficult. Method: In this article we wantto report anaesthetic management of 31 patients having temporomandibular joint ankylosis by using blind nasal intubation technique. In all patients mouth opening is either zero or less than 5mm. Observation: In 87.09% patients we could intubate by blind nasotracheal intubation technique while 13.91% patients required tracheostomy. Conclusion: Blind nasal intubation, fiber optic guided nasal intubation, retrograde intubation &tracheostomy are the different techniques of securing airway in these patients. With proper preoperative preparation, induction with inhalationalagent & blind nasal technique for intubation we can manage patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis successfully. Blind nasal intubation technique can be mastered by practice & is useful in managing difficultintubation cases particularly when fibrotic bronchoscope is not available
Key words: TMJ ankylosis, blind nasal intubation, fiber optic intubation, retrograde intubationtracheostomy
. Neelima Anil Malik, Ankylosis of temporomandibular joint & its management. Ch. No. 22, Text Book of oral & maxillofacial surgeryFirst Edition, 207-219, 2002
. SOAJike, MDChom,VIAMaoyeiw,etall,Nonsyndromal,true congenital ankylosis of temporomandibular joint-A case report. West Indian Med J 2006, 55-6-444
. Shah F R,Sharma R K, Hillowall R N ,Karandikar A D, J Indian Soc. PedoPrev Dentistry 2002 ;20;1,16-20
. AroraMk ,Karamchandani K, Trikha A ,Use of Gum Elastic bougie to facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation in children – A series of 3 cases –A case report. Anaesthesia, March 2006- 61- 3; 291- 294
. Thomas J Gal Airway management ,ch. No. 42, Millers Anaesthesia by Ronald Miller , Sixth edition 2005, vol 2, 1617- 1652
. Nick Woodall, Fibre-optic intubation including local anaesthesia for awake intubation, Anaesthesia& intensive care medicine, vol 6:8 Aug 2005 , 22-26
. NJH Davies, J N Cashmab, Airway management ch. No. 2.6 Lees synopsis of Anaesthesia , 201-2302006, 13th edition
. Vas L, Sawant P A review of anaesthetic technique in 15 paediatric patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Paediatricanaesthesia 2001 ,March 11: 2 : 237-244
. DrYatrindrakumarBatra ,DrPreethi J Maytew , Airway management with endotracheal intubation including awake intubation & blind intubation. Indian J of AnaesthesiaVol 49 –No 4 ; Aug 2005 -263-268
. ShailaKamat, MithunRaju,Ruchita Gupta, SatishKamat, Modified technique of retrograde intubation in TMJ ankylosis ,Indian J of AnaesthesiaVol 52-2, 196-198
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Authors||:||Dr. A. Selimian, Dr. M. Avakian|
Abstract: In this publication we will present the main outcomes of medical trials of the new Biologically Active Food Supplement (BAFS) called Vavigram.
Keywords – biologically active food supplement, trials, Vavigram
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Haemostatic And Haematological Indices Of Aqueous Extract Of Gongronema Latifolium On Female Albino Rat|
|Authors||:||Oguwike F. N., Okpala C. N., Ofor C. C.|
Abstract: The haematological and haemostatic effect of the aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium was investigated. Twenty-eight (28) albino rats weighing 180-200g were divided into three groups; A (8 rats), B (10 rats) and C (10 rats). The group A served as control and was given normal rat pellet and water ad libitum while the test groups B and C were given 1.0 ml of the aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium in combination with the normal rat pellet and water and a low and high dose respectively. The feeding process lasted for 28 days. On the 29th day, 2.0ml of blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture for haematological analysis after a cut was made on the tail of the rats using a lancet and blade. The blood samples was used for the analysis of the haemostatic indices. The result showed that the mean haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, platelet count and total white blood cell count significantly decreased at P<0.05. Also there was a significant decrease in the mean value of bleeding and clotting time at P<0.05. This decrease was found to be dose dependent.
Key words: Gangronema latifolium, platelet count, bleeding time, clotting, packed cell volume, albino rats.
. EDET E.E, AKPANABIATU M.I, ENO A.E, UMOH I.B, ITAN E.H (2009). Effect of Gongronema latifolium crude leaf extract on some cardiac enzymes of alloxan-induction induced rats. African Journal of Biochemistry; 3(11) 366-369.
. AKINNUGA .A, BAMIDELE O, EKECHI P, ADENIYI O, (2011). Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium on haematological same parameters in rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research; 14 (2); 153-156.
. ANTAI A.B (2009): Phytochemistry and some haematological changes following oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Gongronema latifolium. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Science; 24(1): 79-83.
. ATAWODI (2005): Antioxidant of potention of African Medical plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(2): 128-133.
. EGUNYOMI A, MOODY J.O, ELETU O.M (2009). Anti-sickling activities of two ethnomedical plant recipes used for the management of sickle cell anemia in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(11): 20-25.
. SONIBARE M.A, GBILE R.O (2008): Ethnomedical survey of anti- asthmatic plants in South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complementry and Alternative medicine 5(4): 340-345.
. MFON I.A, ITEM J, ATANGWHO, AMABE AKPANTAH, VICTOR A, FISKHER, ANOZENG .O. IGRI AMD PATRICK E. EBONG (2011): Effect of Combined leaf extract of Vermonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gongronema latifolium (utazi) on the pancreatic B-cells of streptozotoan induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 1(1) p 24-34.
. ONIKE RAHAMAN (2010): A survey of medicinal values of Gongronema latifolium (madumaro) In African Alternative Medical.
. UGOCHUKWU N.H, BABADY N.E, COBOURNE M, GASSET S.R, (2003): The effect of Gongronema latifolium extract on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats. Journal of Bioscience 28(1) 1-5.
. OKAFOR J.C (1981); Woody plants of nutritional importance in traditional farming system of Nigeria humid tropics, Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.