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Abstract: This study presents vegetation change detecting in Halabja city, Iraq by using Landsat-5Thematic Mapper images. This city was shelled with chemical weapons on 16 March, 1988. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image differencing and post–classification techniques were applied. The NDVI was derived first then classified to produce vegetation maps followed by quantifying the changes.The results indicated a drastic decrease in the dense, sparse and moderate vegetation by55%, 7% and 9% respectively. In contrast, the non-vegetation class increased by 5%. This means that, the field and planted areas were at risk of losing vegetation.
Keywords: Vegetation Change, NDVIImage Differencing, Landsat, Post-classification
 J.B. Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Guilford Press, 2002
 J.A. Richards, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, Springer, 2012.
 J.A. Richards and X. Jia, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction, Springer Verlag, 2006.
 A. Bannari, D. Morin, F. Bonn and A. Huete, A Review of Vegetation Indices, Remote Sens. Rev. 13 (1995), pp. 95-120.
 Y. Xie, Z. Sha and M. Yu, Remote Sensing Imagery in Vegetation Mapping: A Review, Journal of Plant Ecology. 1 (2008), pp. 9-23.
 J.G. Lyon, D. Yuan, R.S. Lunetta and C.D. Elvidge, A Change Detection Experiment using Vegetation Indices, Photogramm.Eng. Remote Sensing 64 (1998), pp. 143-150.
 R. DeFries and J. Townshend, NDVI-Derived Land Cover Classifications at a Global Scale, Int.J.Remote Sens. 15 (1994), pp. 3567-3586.
 D. Lu, P. Mausel, E. Brondízio and E. Moran, Change Detection Techniques, Int. J. Remote Sens. 25 (2004), pp. 2365-2407.
 Y. Li, J. Chen, R. Lu, P. Gong and T. Yue, Study on Land Cover Change Detection Method Based on NDVI Time Series Batasets: Change Detection Indexes Design, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2005. IGARSS'05 Proceedings 2005 IEEE International, 2005
 D. Lu, P. Mausel, M. Batistella and E. Moran, Land‐cover Binary Change Detection Methods for use in the Moist Tropical Region of the Amazon: A Comparative Study, Int. J. Remote Sens. 26 (2005), pp. 101-114.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||War Impacts Studies Using Remote Sensing|
|Authors||:||Jwan Al-doski, Shattri B. Mansor, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri|
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Abstract: Since 1960, remote sensing satellite imagery reconnaissance has played a significant role in military operations by providing information concerning enemy missiles, troop deployments and military positioning using photographic images from lighter-than-air balloons to aircraft platforms and finally satellite remote sensing imagery with little attention given to broader war impacts. However, besides the war-related uses of such technology, many academic researchers have taken pains to use such advanced technology for examining war impacts. This paper highlights the applications of this technology for detecting war impacts.
Keywords: Satellite Imagery, Remote Sensing, War Impacts
 A. Singh, "Digital change detection techniques using remotely-sensed data," Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 10, pp. 989-1003, 1989.
 J. Rogan and D. M. Chen, "Remote sensing technology for mapping and monitoring land-cover and land-use change," Progress in Planning, vol. 61, pp. 301-326, 2004.
 C. Paradzayi, H. Annegarn, R. Matsika and B. Erasmus, "Field surveys for biomass assessment in African savanna woodlands," in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008.IGARSS 2008.IEEE International, 2008, pp. III-632-III-635.
 W. Stoney, "Guide to land imaging satellites," American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.Updated February, vol. 2, pp. 2006, 2006.
 D. Lu, E. Moran, S. Hetrick and G. Li, "Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Detection," Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing: Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications, vol. 7, pp. 273, 2010.
 D. Lu, P. Mausel, E. Brondízio and E. Moran, "Change detection techniques," Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 25, pp. 2365-2407, 2004.
 R. E. Kennedy, P. A. Townsend, J. E. Gross, W. B. Cohen, P. Bolstad, Y. Wang and P. Adams, "Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects," Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 113, pp. 1382-1396, 2009.
 J. A. Cardille and J. A. Foley, "Agricultural land-use change in Brazilian Amazonia between 1980 and 1995: evidence from integrated satellite and census data," Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 87, pp. 551-562, 2003.
 R. D. Macleod and R. G. Congalton, "A quantitative comparison of change-detection algorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remotely sensed data," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing, vol. 64, pp. 207-216, 1998.
 T. N. K. D. Binh, N. Vromant, N. T. Hung, L. Hens and E. Boon, "Land cover changes between 1968 and 2003 in Cai Nuoc, Ca Mau peninsula, Vietnam," Environ. Dev. Sustainability, vol. 7, pp. 519-536, 2005.
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Abstract: The Turonian Eze-Aku Formation in the study area uncomformably overlies the Albian Asu-River Group and unconformably underlies the Nkporo Group (Campano-Maastrichtian) in Afikpo Synclinorium. The petrographic study of the sandstones in Abaomege was carried out to determine the provenance, paleoclimate and source area tectonics for the sandstone facies. The lithofacies encountered in the area consist of fine to medium grained calcareous sandstones which correlate the sediments of Turonian Amasiri Sandstone and alternating sequence of light grey to dark grey shales, and siltstone. Petrographic analysis of the sandstone suggests that they are mineralogically mature and are essentially quartz arenites. Analysis and interpretation of sedimentary structures, mostly the cross beds, and also the structures of quartz grains indicates that the sandstones were derived primarily from granitic Basement Complex rocks from the Oban Massif, under humid climate. The paleocurrent plots for the sandstones show bimodal distribution pattern, suggesting a shore environment of deposition.
Keywords: Eze-Aku Formation, sandstones, paleocurrent, provenance, petrography.
 A. Irvin, and Ion, E, A regional study of southeastern Nigeria, University of Ibadan press, Nig; 1938, 21-26.
 C. M. Tattam, Review of Nigeria Stratigraphy Report of geological survey, Nigeria, 1944, 37-48
 R. A. Reyment, Aspects of the geology of Nigeria Ibadan university press, 1965, 145p.
 A. Simpson, The Nigeria coalfield. The geology of parts of Owelli and Benue Provinces, Bull. Geol, surv. Nig, 1954, No. 24, pp, 85p.
 R. C. Murat, Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of the Cretaceous and L. Tertiary in southern Nigeria. In Dassauvagie, T.F. and Whiteman, A.J. (Eds). African Geol University of Ibadan press, 1972, 251-266.
 M. Hoque, Significance of textural and petrographic attributes of several Cretaceous Sandstones, southern Nigeria .Jounal of Geolgy. Soc. India 17, 1976, 514-521.
 P. E. Potter, and F. J. Pettijohn, Paleocurrent and Basin analysis, Academic press inc; New York, 1963, 294p
 F. J. PettiJohn, Sedimentary rocks (3rd Ed.) Harper and Row New York, 1975, 195-246, 261-289.
 I. Banerjee, A subtidal Bar model for the Eze-Aku sandstones, Nigeria. Journal of Sedimentary Geology 30, 1980, 133-147.
 C. R. Cratchley, and J. P. Jones, An interpretation of the geology and gravity anomalies of the Benue Valley, Nigerian. Overseas Geological Survey, geophysical paper 1, 1965, 22-24.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||3-D Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization of "Y" Field Niger Delta, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Ajisafe, Y. C., Ako, B. D.|
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Abstract: An integrated interpretation of seismic and well log data over "Y" Field in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria was carried out with the aim of characterizing reservoir-rocks using quantitative seismic attributes and petrophysical properties. 3-D seismic sections, composite well logs and check-shot data were used. Calibration of wells to seismic was carried out. Depths and thicknesses of hydrocarbon bearing zones were obtained from correlated wells. Structural maps were used to study the geometry of reservoirs in the field. Well log data showed that the area of study was characterized by sand-shale inter-beds. Three reservoirs were mapped at depth range of 1524 to 1800 m, with thicknesses of 10- 45 m. Porosity of the reservoirs ranged from 30- 40 %, water saturation 30-45 % and hydrocarbon saturation 65- 80 %. Seismic attribute maps revealed presence of hydrocarbons in the identified sands. There was a good correlation between the structural high and zones of anomalous amplitude. It was concluded that seismic attributes could be used to predict reservoir rock properties and characterize reservoir.
Keywords: Hydrocarbon, Petrophysical properties, Reservoir Characterization, Reservoir Rocks, Seismic Attributes.
 Dobrin, M.B., and Savit,C.H., Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting (4th edition. McGraw – Hill Book Company, Singapore. 1988) Pp 430 – 448.
 Thapar, M. R., AVO & Seismic Attributes; Principles & Applications, PetroSkills, Tulsa, Ok, U.S.A., 2004, pp.73-123.
 Cooke D.A. and Muryanto, T., Reservoir Quantification of B Field, Java Sea via Statistical and Theoretical Methods, Submitted for presentation at the 1999 SEG International Exposition and Meeting, Houston, TX USA 1999, pp 14 – 26.
 Haas, A., and Dubrule, O., Geostatistical inversion – a sequential method of stochastic reservoir modeling constrained by seismic data: First Break, 12, 1994, 561-569.
 Hampson, D., Russell,B.,Schuelke, J and Quirein, J., , Multiattribute seismic analysis: The Leading Edge, 16 1997,1439-1443.
 Sheriff, R.E., Basic petrophysics and geophysics, in Reservoir Geophysics No.7, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa,Ok, 1992 pp.37-49.
 Mavko, G., Mukerji, T. and Dvorkin, J. The rock physics handbook, Cambridge (Cambridge University Press. 1998) 329p.
 Ejedawe, J.E., Patterns of incidence of oil reserves in Niger Delta Basin. AAPG Bulletin, vol. 65, 1981, p. 1574 - 1585.
 Whiteman, A.J., Nigeria: Its petroleum geology, resources and potential (London, Graham and Trotman, 1982) 394 p.
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Abstract: The Owerri Capital Territory is predominantly underlain by the Benin Formation (the coastal plain-sands) the major rock types include sands, sandstone, and gravel with clay occurring as lenses. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of surface water sources in the area involved the assessment of the physicochemical and bacteriological analyses. This was achieved through water sample analysis. The result of the analysis revels that Fe2+ , Pb 2+ , SO 42- , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ concentration (mg/l) ranges between 0.08-0.38, 0.03 - 0.09, 3.0 – 4.0, 0.029 - 0.061, 0.06-0.68 respectively. The hydrochemical facie Classification result of the water samples show the predominance of alkali bicarbonate water type (Na+ + K+) - HCO3- that is largely soft and therefore, mostly of acceptable quality for household uses. Surface water sources are predominantly infected with microbial contamination, indicating input of organic (faecal) wastes in the flow system. Water resources development in the area requires elaborate qualitative assessment, to ensure that any necessary pre-use treatment is affected.
Keywords: Hydro geochemical, Pollution, Surface Water, Water Classification.
. APHA,. Standard Methods for Examiantion of Water and Water, 18th Edition. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), Washington D.C., 1992 pp.50-54.
. Chapman. D Chapman and Hall Ltd, 2-6 boundaries Row, London: SEI BHN. 1992.pp 99- 187.
. Egboka, B.C.E. Hydrogeological Provinces of Nigeria. In Water Quality Bull. 13, No. 4, 1988, pp. 117-125.
. Ezeigbo, H.I. Quality of Water Resources in Anambra State. Nigeria. Jour. Min.Geol., vol 23, 1987, pp.97 – 103.
. Ibe, K.M., Nwankwor, G.I. and Onyekuru, S.O. 2007, Assessment of Ground Water Vulnerability and its Application to the Development of Protection Strategy for the Water Supply Aquifer Owerri, South-eastern Nigeria; Jnl. of Env. Environ Mon and Assess 67: 323 – 360.
. Piper, A.M. A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analysis. Trans Am Geophys. Union 25:1944 pp.914-923.
. Todd, D.K. and Mays, L.W. Groundwater Hydrology, 3rd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 1980 pp.267 – 315.
. Uma, K.O. and Egboka, B.C.E. (1985). Water Resource of Owerri and its environs. Imo State, Nigeria. J. Min. Geol.22 (1-2): 57 – 64.
. IT'S Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006, pp.130 – 185.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Chemical weathering of a granite stone sample from the Peruvudaiyaar Koil, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India|
|Authors||:||R. Anu Padma, R. Ramasamy, M. S. Mathews|
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Abstract: A stone piece from a granite patina of Peruvudaiyaar (Brihadisvara) Temple, Thanjavur is taken and examined its chemical weathering features on its outer surfaces directly under EDAX attached Scanning Electron Microscope. Three grains of feldspars are identified in the piece of granite stone and 29 points were selected on outer surfaces of these 3 grains of feldspar. The analyses were calculated on the basis of 32 (O) ions to study the intensity of insitu weathering of the grains of feldspar. The EDAX analyses show that grain I and II were subjected to extensive leaching of removal weathered products of alumina (kaolinite) and carbonates (bi-carbonates and carbonates) with residual enrichment of silica. This feature is due to direct exposure of the feldspar grain surfaces to differential weathering by direct alternate attack of sunlight and rainfall over a period of one thousand years. On the other hand grain III was subjected to extensive chemical weathering leading to precipitation of kaolinite and carbonate at the expense of silica by slow infiltration of rainwater during this period. The grain III associated with cavity is located at the shadow region of rainfall attack in the granite patina stone piece. Coatings of corrosive resistant paintings may preserve and protect the structure to a certain extent. Keywords: Brahadeeswarar Temple, Chemical weathering, Feldspar, Granite patina, Peruvudaiyaar Temple, Thanjavur
 George Mitchell, the Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1988, 145-48.
 A.E. Blum. Feldspars in weathering, In: Feldspars and their reactions, ed., I. Parson, I. Kluwer, The Netherlands, 1994. 595-630
 M.J. Wilson, Weathering of the primary rock forming minerals: processes, products and rates, Clay. Miner, 39, 2004. 233-266.
 N. Schiavon, Kaolinization of granite in an urban environment, Environmental Geology, 52, 2, 2007, 399-407 (9)
 A. Rittmann, Stable Igneous Mineral Assemblages of Igneous Rocks, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1973
 W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals, 2nd Edn, Parson Prentice Hall, London, 1992 p.696.
 T.F.W. Barth, Theoretical Petrology, J. Wiley, New York 1962.
 S. Ceryan, New chemical weathering indices for estimating the mechanical properties of rocks: A case study from Kurtun Granodiorite, NE Turkey, Turkish J. Earth Sci. 17, 2007, 187-207
 Parker, An index of weathering for silicate rocks, Geological Magazine, 107, 1970, 501-04.
 A.PW. Hodder, Thermodynamic interpretation of weathering indices and its application to engineering properties of rocks, Engineering Geology, 20,1984, 241-51